and in research facilities around the country will have profound implications

And in research facilities around the country will

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and in research facilities around the country will have profound implications not just for  human health, but also for the environment, agriculture, and a range of other areas that  require technological creativity; and, In energy, where the combination of environmental and geopolitical imperatives have created  the context for an enormously productive period in developing energy technologies as well. Looking across the breadth of the U.S. economy, the prospects for transformational innovation to  occur are enormous. But to ensure that the entrepreneurial spirit that Schumpeter recognized in  the early twentieth century will continue to drive the American economy in the twenty-first  century requires a role for government as well: to create an environment that is conducive to  generating those developments. © Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images Source:  The White House Blog, September 21, 2009.  - and-Quality-Jobs/ The influence of economists on policy goes beyond their role as  advisers: Their research and writings often affect policy indirectly.  Economist John Maynard Keynes offered this observation: The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they  are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed, the world is ruled by  little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from intellectual  influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist. Madmen in authority, who  hear voices in the air, are distilling their frenzy from some academic scribbler of a few years  back. Although these words were written in 1935, they remain true. Indeed,  the “academic scribbler” now influencing public policy is often Keynes  himself. 2-2c Why Economists' Advice Is Not Always Followed Why Economists' Advice Is Not Always Followed Any economist who advises presidents or other elected leaders knows 
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that his or her recommendations are not always heeded. Frustrating  as this can be, it is easy to understand. The process by which  economic policy is actually made differs in many ways from the  idealized policy process assumed in economics textbooks. Throughout this text, whenever we discuss economic policy, we often  focus on one question: What is the best policy for the government to  pursue? We act as if policy were set by a benevolent king. Once the  king figures out the right policy, he has no trouble putting his ideas  into action.
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