finance department and buy the required raw materials, which will be used by production department. Every system has its own smaller systems called subsystems. For example, Accounting Information System contains subsystems like the following as its own subsystems: system for Revenue cycle, Expenditure cycle, Production Cycle etc. Every organization has goals and the subsystems of the system should be designed to maximize achievement of the organization’s goals. EXAMPLE : The production department (a subsystem) of a company might have to forego its goal of staying within its budget in order to meet the organization’s goal of delivering product on time. This means the systems concept encourages integration (i.e., minimizing the duplication of recording, storing, reporting and processing)
[DBU] [College of Computing Science]  Compiled By: S. E. 3/11 SAD – Chap1 Figure 1.1. Supra & Sub Systems Units within a system that share some or all the characteristics of that system are called subsystem. For example a company can be view be as a system and its particular industry as a supra system. Characteristics of Systems Any system is characterized by having the following components: 1. Components – A component is either an irreducible part or an aggregate of parts, also called as a subsystem. Figure-1.2: Characteristics of System 2. Interrelated Components – The function of one component is tied to the functions of the others. Output from one is input for another, the dependence of a part on one or more other parts. 3. Boundary – A system has boundary, within which all of its components are contained and which establishes the limits of a system, separating it from other systems. Components within the boundary can be changed whereas systems outside the boundary cannot be changed. 4. Purpose – All components work together to achieve the overall purpose of the system. 5. Environment – A system exist within an environment, everything outside the system’s boundary that influences and / or interacts the system. 6. Interfaces – The points at which the system meets its environment and there are also interfaces
[DBU] [College of Computing Science]  Compiled By: S. E. 4/11 SAD – Chap1 between subsystems. Input – System takes input from its environment. Essentially, a system accepts inputs form its environment and transforms them into outputs, which are discharged back into the environment. 7. Output - System returns output to its environment as a result of its functioning to achieve the purpose. Output from individual subsystems may be inputs to other subsystems. 8. Constraints – There are limits to what the system can do (capacity, speed, and capability), some of these constraints are imposed inside the system and others are imposed by the environment. Some important Systems concepts Decomposition – is the process of breaking down a system into its smaller components, decomposing a system also allows us to focus on one particular part of a system, making it easier to think of how to modify that one part independently of the entire system.
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