salmonicida in rainbow trout than fish which received inactivated whole cells

Salmonicida in rainbow trout than fish which received

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Aer. salmonicida in rainbow trout than fish which received inactivated whole cells with or without levamisole or emulsified oil as adjuvants, or micro-encapsulated with or without muramyl dipeptide or P-l,3-glucan (Ackerman et al., 2000). Severe side-effects have resulted from the i.p. injection of oil-adjuvanted vaccines, with the ECP component contributing to inflammation (Mutoloki et al., 2006). Intra-abdominal adhesions have been reported in Atlantic salmon following the i.p. injection of oil-adjuvanted vaccines (Gudmundsdottir et al., 2003a). Also, there is evidence of temporary immunosuppression following the administration of some vaccines (Inglis et al., 1996). One solution to this problem has been the use of antibiotics, namely amoxycillin dosed at 0.1ml containing 150mg/fish, which are administered by injection with the vaccine (IngHs et al., 1996). The precise composition of the vaccine is of critical importance. To date, scientists have evaluated inactivated whole cells (including those based on IROMP), inactivated L-forms, soluble extracts, attenuated live cells (such as those lacking an A-layer and O-antigen; Thornton et al., 1994), inactivated cells supplemented with toxoids and/or purified sub-cellular components, immune serum (for passive immu- nisation) and polyvalent preparations, usually including inactivated whole cells of Aer. salmonicida and Vibrio spp. (e.g. Hoel et al., 1997). Most of the early formula- tions yielded poor or equivocal results (Table 10.3). The notable exceptions are passive immunisation and the use of attenuated live vaccines (Cipriano and Starliper, 1982; ElHs et al., 1988a, b; Vaughan et al., 1993). The latter was particularly effective in Atlantic salmon, in which experimental use resulted in 12.5% mortalities in the vaccinated group compared with 87.5% mortahty among control fish, after challenge with a virulent culture of Aer. salmonicida. A live aromatic-dependent Aer. salmon- icida vaccine, aroA, was administered intraperitoneally at 2x 10^ to 2x 10^ live bacteria/fish, resulting in a 253-fold increase in LD50 (Vaughan et al., 1993). This live vaccine stimulated T-cells rather than B-cell responses in rainbow trout (Marsden
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Control 353 et ai, 1996a). But how long did this live vaccine remain in fish tissues? The evidence revealed that, following i.p. injection, the live vaccine became widely distributed throughout fish (in this case rainbow trout) tissues, with clearance taking 7-9 days at 16°C. Lower temperatures led to more prolonged retention of the bacterial cells within the vaccinated fish (Marsden et al, 1996b). The novel approaches of using IROMP and inactivated L-forms have met with success (Durbin et ai, 1999; Mcintosh and Austin, 1993). Using formahn-inactivated cells of Aer. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida grown in iron-depleted conditions ad- ministered to rainbow trout intraperitoneally followed by an oral boost, antibodies were produced against OMP (maximum titre= 1:2,560 at day 105) and IROMPs (maximum titre= 1:12,800 at day 105) and conferred protection (RPS>80%; Durbin et ai, 1999). A complex formulation of atypical Aer. salmonicida cells (with,
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