connected to something outside of himself searching for significance in life

Connected to something outside of himself searching

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connected to something outside of himself, searching for significance in life, and positively adapting to events that challenge a person's sense of meaning (e.g., onset of a traumatic disability such as SCI).Next, we tested a mediational model to determine the extent to which health status, perceived stress, social support, self-esteem, and psychological well-being explained the relationship between spirituality and happiness. This hypothesized mediational model explained 68% of the variance in happiness, a large effect size. Thus, these five variables ex- plain the mechanism through which spirituality influences happiness.Results of this study have important clinical rehabilitation counseling implications. Rehabilitation counselors and psychologists working with persons with SCI can adapt spiritual interventions that focus on health promotion, stress reduction, increasing social support networks, building the
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person's self-esteem and psychological well-being. Using a spiritual framework as a basis for intervention, would have a positive effect on the psychological well-being and happinessof persons with SCI. For example, Honarparvaran, Ghaderi, Bayat, and Cheraghi (2014) show group counseling with an existential framework focusing on self-determination, values,choice, and meaning can facilitate spiritual growth in personswith SCI. This spiritual growth may lead to a greater sense ofself, inner peace, acceptance, and happiness because "positive values, attitudes, beliefs and strength that one acquires through spiritual practices contribute to health and happiness" (Sinha, 2014, p. 396).Individually, each predictor variable significantly influenced happiness, thereby adding to the body of literature in this area. As in this study, Graham (2008) found self-reported health status was a strong predictor of happiness worldwide. For persons with chronic illness and disability, Graham statesinitially the illness or disability may have a negative impact on happiness. Over time, persons with chronic illness and disability return to their initial level of happiness once expectations for health status shift in relation to their condition. This shift portrays how the locus of evaluation for health status shifts from the general population to those persons with similar conditions. In alignment with the findings this study, Schiffrin and Nelson (2010) found support for the intuitive inverse relation between perceived stress and happiness. Siedlecki, Salthouse, Oishi, and
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Jeswani (2014) found family embeddedness (i.e., frequency of contact) and provided support (i.e., emotional, tangible, orinformational help) predicted positive affect, a proxy for happiness in their study. This study provides additional supporting evidence for the relationship between those two variables. In spiritually focused interventions aimed at increasing happiness for persons with SCI, self-esteem should be addressed. As Nosek, Hughes, Swedlund, Taylor, and Swank (2003) report, for women with disabilities, self-esteem is significantly associated with engaging in health
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