Example: smoking and carcinoma of the lung Prospective B. Cohort studies: Study a group of people cohort (group of people) over a long period of time to determine which factors may be associated with the appearance of a specific condition. This does npt rely on recall ( people’s memory). You follow people through a period of time (in the now) so its likely more accurate than retrospective study. Tend to be more valid than case control because it doesn't require recall
Malka A-R Example: EPIC(European perspective investigation into cancer) study: suggest that increased intake of fruits and vegetables has a minimal effect on cancer rates Epidemiological studies Summary: - Tests relationship between two things - Correlation vs causation: Correlation does not prove causation! 2. Interventional study: Assignment of subjects is controlled by the investigator Example: Book of Daniel Example 2: Vitamin D and Calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk by 60%! Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study The Gold Standard What does this mean? Let’s break it into part: Placebo response : Includes a placebo Blind Study : You divide group into two. One gets the substance you are testing, the other group gets something else ( can be a placebo). Neither groups know what they have. Double-Blind: Neither the two groups NOR the experimenter knows what group each person belongs to. This prevents the researcher for having an effect on the subject’s behavior. Randomized : You can’t pick who you want in the study. Pick people at random from the population. Don’t go to Alcoholics Anonymous and get them to be in a study and then conclude 100% of Montreal’s population are alcoholics because according to my study, all the subjects are alcoholics ( pls don’t be this dumb ever). META ANALYSIS: It’s a study of studies. Takes a bunch of info from many studies. Can be any kind of study ( Observational study or interventional study). Not sure where this info goes: - Azodicarbonamide found in yoga mat and White bread - Hangover enzyme can't convert acetaldehyde to acetic acid
Malka A-R - Brown versus white eggs: Differences in color or feathers and earlobes LESSON 1: Vitamins I Side Notes (from quiz 2): Not all vitamins are antioxidants The body cannot produce most vitamins Video 1 Vitamins are nutriments needed in small amounts to prevent deficiency diseases. A balanced diet contains all the vitamins in the required amounts 13 Vitamins - Fat-soluble: A (retinol), D, E, and K - Water soluble: B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B5, B6, B7 (Biotin), B9 (Folic acid), B12, C (Ascorbic acid) There are 8 Vitamin Bs TOPIC TWO: Micronu
Malka A-R François Magendie (1783 -1855) : French physiologist Experiment: Took a dog of 3 years old fat and in good health and fed it only sugar. It expired the 32nd day of the experiment.
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- The Bible, Vitamin, Malka