22 arabic at the dawn of islam as mentioned in the

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2.2. Arabic at the Dawn of Islam As mentioned in the first section, Arabic does not evolve into the light of history until the sixth or seventh centuries AD, the time of Islam emergence. The advent of Prophet Mohammed and Islam colossally contributed to transmitting Arabic from the unknown side of the history to be a world language in presence of Islam. It is worth mentioning that at the beginning of the Islamic period, Arabic had two main sources, Quran and Pre-Islamic poetry (Versteegh, 1997). Such two sources were considered as the pillars of Arabic standardization and codification. They played a fundamental role in the development of Arabic. The Quran revelation constituted the cornerstone of Arabic development, particularly in terms of developing the written system of Arabic. Since Quran revelation, Arabic has not only been a language of poetry, but also permanently sacralized, as the chosen language of the Quran (Ryding, 2005). Islamic Empire expansion, extended from the seventh to the twelfth centuries, was regarded as the turning point of Arabic language as it became an International language of civilization, culture, scientific writing and research, diplomacy, and administration (Ryding, 2005). Big bodies of scientific works, which have been regarded as references for many scientific fields in Europe, were written in Arabic. In the middle ages, Arabic was the leading language in the world and had been used as a language of wider communication. The Europeans rulers would have sent their children to Arab areas to study the different thriving sciences then. Thus, Arabic occupied an international position just similar to that of English at the present time. Many Muslim scholars of non-Arab origins such as Al-Bairouni (1048), the philosopher and physician Ibn Sina (1037) the historian Al-Tabari (923) and many others produced many works written in Arabic. Therefore, many scholars, Arabs, non-Arabs and even Christians, contributed to the development of intellectual life especially under the Abbasid rule (750-1258 A.D) when Arabic literature and different fields of sciences reached its golden age. Hourani (2002) states that Arabic was not only the language of religion but also a literary and scientific language in the Arab World.
English Literature and Language Review, 2015, 1(4): 28-3630 Generally speaking, it could be asserted that the holy status of the Quran alongside the prestigious literary position of the Arab poetry helped in giving Arabic this high status and paved the road to the process of Arabic standardization. 2.3. Arabic Standardization Until the seventh century A.D, the world had known just little about Arab people or Arabic language (Versteegh, 1997). Arabic had been unknown before the advent of Islam and Prophet Mohammed. It was only a minor member of the Southern branch of the Semitic language family (Farghaly, 2010). Arabic was spoken only in the Arabian Peninsula. Aramaic was the predominant language then, and it was used as a ‘lingua franca’ in the

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