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3. Jurisdiction over land territory. Save for the exemptions mentioned above, the State exercises jurisdiction over everything found within its terrestrial domain. 4. Jurisdiction over maritime territory. a) Over internal waters. The same jurisdiction as over the land area, since the internal waters are deemed assimilated in the land mass. In the case of foreign merchant vessels docked in a local port or bay, the coastal State exercises jurisdiction in civil matters, but criminal jurisdiction is determined accordingto the < i) English Rule: The coastal State shall have jurisdiction over all offenses committed on board the vessel except those which do not compromise the peace of the port [applicable in the Philippines; see U.S. v. Look Chaw, 18 Phil573; People v. Wong Cheng, 46 Phil 729]; or OUTLINE / REVIEWER IN POLITICAL LAW
672 Public International Law ii) French Rule: flag State shall have jurisdiction over all offenses committed on board the vessel except those which compromise the peace of the port. b) Over archipelagic waters. Same rule as in internal waters, save for innocent passage of merchant vessels through archipelagic sea lanes. c) Over the territorial sea. Criminal jurisdiction over foreign merchant vessels shall be determined by the application of either the English Rule or theFrench Rule. Innocent passage and involuntary entrance are recognized exceptions, provided that in case of involuntary entrance, the distress on the vessel must be real. d) Over the contiguous zone. As indicated above, under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the coastal State may exercise the control necessary to prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration and sanitary regulations, and punish the said infringement. e) Over the exclusive economic zone. Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the coastal State has sovereign rights over the exclusive economic zone for purposes of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the sea-bed, the sub-soil and the superjacent waters, as well as the production of energy from the water, currentsand winds. Other States shall have the freedom of navigation and over-flight, tolay submarine cables and pipes, and other lawful uses. f) Over the continental shelf. The coastal State enjoys the right of exploitation of oil deposits and other resources in the continental shelf. In case the continental shelf extends to the shores of another State, or is shared with another State, the boundary shall be determined in accordance with equitable principles.g) Over the high seas. Jurisdiction may be exercised by the State on the high seas over the following: i) Its vessels. The flag State has jurisdiction over its public vessels wherever they are, and over its merchant vessels on the high seas. See The LotusCase, World Ct. Rep. 20. However, because of the flags of conveniencecontroversy, the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea concedes that a vessel shall