4 a cerebral hemorrhage occurs when a defective

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4. A cerebral hemorrhage occurs when a defective artery in the brain bursts, flooding the surrounding tissue with blood. Nutrition therapy Dysphagia Foods that cause choking or that are hard to manage should be avoided (dry or crisp foods, peanut butter, thinly pureed foods, raw vegetables, to mention a few). If the patient has problems with saliva production, then foods can be moistened with small amounts of liquid (au jus or gravy). Because thin liquids are often difficult to swallow, thickeners are used to make semisolid foods from soups, beverages, and juices.
HEALTH PROMOTION for CV & Pulmonary Diseases Dietary fiber Soluble dietary fiber has the following properties: • Delays gastric emptying • Slows intestinal transit time • Slows glucose absorption • Is fermented in the colon into short-chain fatty acids that may inhibit liver cholesterol synthesis and help clear LDL cholesterol On the other hand, insoluble dietary fiber—cellulose, lignin, and many hemicelluloses— found in vegetables, wheat, and most other grains does not have these lipid-lowering effects. Thus an increased use of soluble fiber food sources, especially oat bran and legumes, would have beneficial effects. Omega 3 fatty acids Found mostly in seafood and marine oils, also have protective functions. They can do the following: • Change pattern of plasma fatty acids to alter platelet activity and reduce platelet aggregation that causes blood clotting, thus lowering the risk of coronary thrombosis • Decrease the synthesis of VLDL • Increase anti-inflammatory effects It would seem, then, factors in foods such as oats, dried beans, and fatty fish would provide valuable lipid-lowering additions to our diets. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Malnutrition Increased energy requirements Progressive CHF contributes to lung disease and risk of respiratory failure. Malnutrition is common with the debilitating condition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This term describes a group of disorders in which airflow in the lungs is limited and respiratory failure develops. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are two main interrelated COPD conditions. Malnutrition usually accompanies COPD, and its presence increases illness and death rates associated with the disease process. Anorexia and significant weight loss reflect a growing inability to maintain adequate nutritional status, which in turn severely compromises pulmonary function. Fatigue Progression of the disease process, with its increasing shortness of breath, prevents the person from living a normal life, and prognosis is poor. Eventually, in progressive respiratory failure, the patient becomes dependent on a mechanical respirator and controlled oxygen supply. A poor prognosis is associated with a compromised nutritional status in these patients.
Nutritional management Respiratory failure is actually a failure of pulmonary exchange of oxygen and CO 2 . Thus its common manifestations are hypoxemia , deficient oxygenation of blood, and hypercapnia , excess CO 2 in the blood. Patients with COPD have increased energy

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