DSST Fundamentals of counseling

Erik erikson stated that at each of the eight

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Erik Erikson stated that at each of the eight psychosocial stages, a person is faced with conflicts that he or she must resolve to fully develop as a person. His psychosocial stages do differ from Freud’s stages in three key areas. First, Erikson places a much greater emphasis on social and cultural forces than Freud’s theories. Second, Erikson does not believe that a failure at any one stage will cause irreversible damage to that individual. And third, Erikson emphasizes the entire lifespan of an individual. Erikson focused chiefly on psychosocial development; in contrast, Freud focused chiefly on psychosexual development. Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud both defined stages of development. However, the major difference between the two theories is that Erikson's stages covers across the entire lifespan into old age, while Freud's theory ends with adolescence. Identity Formation was studied by Erik Erikson, who constructed the major task of adolescence as identity vs. identity diffusion. It’s defined by the question "Who am I uniquely?" (likes, dislikes, beliefs, traits, interests, identifications). The basic idea of Jung's theory of personality is that each part of a person's personality must be balanced . Jung's theory states that every part of a person's personality will be expressed by some means, whether it be as a normal expression, a neurotic expression, or an expression in a dream. Jung stated that all of the parts of a person's personality must be in balance. Jung's theory of personality states that every person has two orientations. Extraversion refers to concern with the outside world. Introversion refers to concern with one's inner world. Introversion refers to a person looking inward at their own thoughts and feelings. Extraversion refers to a person looking outward. According to Jung, these two orientations have to be balanced for a person to have full psychological health. In regards to the extraversion-introversion balance, Jung stated that introversion increases with age. According to Jung, people tend to be more extroverted when they are young, with people becoming more introverted as they age.
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Alfred Adler made the original split from pure psychodynamic theory insisting that a person helps to create themselves and is not purely a creation of their early experiences. Adler felt that Freud’s narrow biological view of personality was too restrictive. Adlerian theory holds that an individual begins to form their personality and approach to life during the first 6 years and the outcome is much more related to choices and responsibility rather than pure unconscious or conscious motivation. Adlerians insist that what people are born with is not nearly as important as what they do with the skills and abilities they have.
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