Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of people and

Those who are associated in it take collectively the

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when compared with others like itself. Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of people , and severally are called citizens , as sharing in the sovereign power, and subjects , a being under the laws of the State. But these terms are often confused and taken one for another: it is enough to know how to distinguish them when they are being used with precision. 很快 没这种 行为就 出了 一个道德与机体的 同体, 的每个 单独 的个体。它 多成员,就如同 中的 员一样。由 同体就 统一性,形成 了自我意 并拥 生命 个由 多成员 成的 则称 和国 体。当它 状态 时, 为国家 当它 积极 挥作用时, 为主 国家。当它与同 时, 则称 它为强国。它的成员有一个 同的名字 —— 。当人 民做 为主 权权威 与者时,就 民; 当人 作为国家 者时,就 叫做臣民 。但是, 些名 往往互 、彼 通用。不过,只 完全理 了这 含义后 ,就可以将之 开来 选自 Jean Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract translated by Curl 译文 选自 袁岳编译卢梭著 7. Moral Influences in Early Youth, My Father’s character and Opinions(Excerpts) 少年 想影响 父亲 的性 和观点 选) In my education, as in that of every one, the moral influences, which are so much more important than all others, are also the most complicated, and the most difficult to specify with any approach to completeness. Without attempting the hopeless task of detailing the circumstances by which, in this respect, my early character may have been shaped, I shall confine myself to a few leading points, which form an indispensable part of any true account of my education. 和任何人一样,在 中, 影响比 其他 影响 得多,也是最 复杂 、最 用任何方 的。 详细 明塑造 我年少 时性 环境 什么 样的, 根本 是不 可能完成的任务, 将只 一些最重 的事 ,它们在任何关于 的真 都是不可 缺少 的一部 I was brought up from the first without any religious belief, in the ordinary acceptation of the term. My father, educated in the creed of Scotch Presbyterianism, had by his own studies and reflexions been early led to reject not only the belief in Revelation, but the foundations of what is commonly called Natural Religion. I have heard him say, that the turning point of his mind on the subject was reading Rutler’s Analogy . That work, of which he always continued to speak with respect, kept him, as he said, for some considerable time, a believer in the divine authority of Christianity; by proving to him, that whatever are the difficulties in believing that the Old and New Testaments proceed from, or record the acts of, a perfectly wise and good being, the same and still greater difficulties stand in the way of the belief, that a being of such a character can have 192
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been the Maker of the universe. 我从 一开 的是 有任何 --按照 家对 说。 父亲 受教 长老会 教义 ,但他很 就通过 的研 反思 ,不仅 抛弃 的信 ,还 对通 自然 基本 我听 他说过,他对 个问 题的 转折 点,是读 教类 作的时 ,他 他在相当 的一 时间内相信 神圣 权威 部书向他 ,不 管要 《新 源自 一个 其英 明善良 的人, 者是他行为的记录有多 的还在于 相信有 这种 的人是 宇宙 主。
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