■They don’t balance, they defy and therefore risk rejection, verbal attack, violence, and even ostracism. ★What is the gender double-bind? Be familiar with examples of the gender double-bind.○Double bind, a situation in which cultural expectations are contradictory, making success unattainable■Satisfying only one or the other expectation inevitably means failure, and it is impossible to do both○Example: When women gain power they fail because femininity is associated with powerlessness. When women give up power they succeed as women but lose power. Failure is inevitable no matter what or the circumstance. ○POSSIBLE ESSAY QUESTION ON EXAM○Applies only to women■Negotiate identity constantly★What are the different forms of sexism? Know examples of each○Benevolent sexism - Attribution of seemingly positive traits to women that justify women's subordination to men●Loving, patient, and kind (Emotional meekness)○Hostile Sexism■Only one that has laws preventing (Includes harassment, threats, and violence to enforce women's subordination to men)
■Negative stereotypes (womens role as admirers, sex partners, housewives, ect.)■Example : Santa Barbra killing women because they didn’t want to have sex wit him (sorority girls and eventually randoms on killing spree)★What is male flight?○Men abandon feminized arenas (Ex. : high heels and cheerleading)○Economic consequence ★Is hegemonic masculinity a stable social category?○Hegemonic masculinity - refers to a type of masculine performance, idealized by men and women alike, that functions to justify and naturalized gender inequality, assuming widespread consent to the social disadvantage of most women and some men. ■The idea of the “real man” (Idealized form of masculinity)■Well educated, tall, most likely white, heterosexual, ect.○Yes it is stable social category it is what society is telling men to constantly strive towards★Know the hierarchy of masculinity.○A rough ranking of men from most to least masculine, with the assumption that more is always better. ○Bottom: Marginalized Masculinity and Subordinated Masculinity○Top: Hegemonic masculinity★What are some of the reasons why glamorizing hegemonic masculinity can be problematic? What are the social outcomes of glamorizing hyper-masculinity?○It feeds into and maintains the structure of gender inequality. The social outcomes are toxic masculinity (Strategic enactments of masculinities that are harmful to both the men who enact them and the people around them) and inequality. ★Explain Lorber’s distinction: “for individuals, gender means sameness”; “for society, gender means difference.” (Lorber, pp. 38-42) ○Individuals conform to gender norms so that they can establish difference within society.○Essay is on this!!!