The third consideiation for the choice of Morga was Rizars opin ion that this

The third consideiation for the choice of morga was

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had yet to consider themselves a nation, and could not have considered themselves as Filipinos. The third consideiation for the choice of Morga was Rizars opin- ion that this secular account was more objective, more trustworthy, than those written by the religious missionaries which were liberally sprinkled with tales of miracles and apparitions: The fifth and last consideration was that Morga was an eyewit- ness, and therefore a primary souxre, on the Philippines and its peo- ple at the point of first contact with Spain. Rizal spoke highly of Morga's integrity as a colonial official, which may have been true of his term of office in Manila, but, according to more recent editions, by Retana (1909) and Cummins (1971), his scruples seem to have' deteriorated as he advanced in age and career. , Rizal's often humorless rebuttals of biased Spanish
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accounts of his country and his people emphasized, on one level, the need for an indio interpretation of history, while on another recreating the glo- ries of the lost pre-Hispanic Philippines. Rizal argued that the pre- Hispanic Filipinos had their own cultuxe before 1521, and thus were not saved from barbarism, and did not require "civilization" or a new religion from Spain. Rizal insists that the flourishing pre-Hispanic Philippine civilization, obliterated by Spain and the friars, could have developed on its own into something great. Rizal emphase that the pre-Hispanic civilization had metallurgy, a shipbuilding indus- hy, trade contacts with China, and even a system of writing and accompanying literature, all ruined by Spanish colonization. Rizal comments that the Philippines of his'time was no better than the pre- Hispanic Philippines. If Spain had not come, or had left The rejection of the spiritual authority of the friars:
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