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Renaissance also saw elaborately choreographed ballets, court dances in which kings and nobles could participate•Will Kemp: one of the most famous comics of Shakespeare’s time; specialized in the “jig”Early European Colonialism•first great phase of European expansion into other parts of the world during the Renaissance •cultural as well as military conquest (missionaries and religious conquering) •meant a way of looking at other music from around the world, and examining Chapter Seven– The Early Baroque Period•at end of 16thcentury, music was undergoing rapid changes in northern Italy•new style, style of Early Baroque period, took hold all over Italy and in EuropeFrom Renaissance to Baroque•madrigal was most “advanced” form in late Renaissance music; reaction set in against the madrigal (esp. word painting) new style of solo singing (recitative) was developed, half music, half recitation)oled to stage and opera oinvented in Florence around 1600, operabecame one of the greatest and most characteristic products of Baroque imaginationVenice•lots of artistic influence and output•Venetian composers expanded on choir subdivision (from low and high of three or four voice parts each), into two or three or more whole choirsohomophony crowded out polyphony as full choirs answered one another stereophonically osome choirs were made up entirely of instruments 9
ostately decorum of High Renaissance was forgotten magnificence and extravagance became new ideals •most important composers were Andrea Gabrieli and Giovanni Gabrielioexperimented with sound in architectural space *control exhibited over Baroque form was an appropriate response to Baroque extravagance, exaggeration and emotionality Baroque Music•rhythm and metreorhythms became more definite, regular and insistent; single rhythm can be heard throughout a piece or a major segment of a pieceobar lines began to be used for the first time acceptance of meter •textureobasso continuoobass line is performed by low voices or low instruments; in Baroque music also played by a chord instrument, reinforces the bass line and adds chords continuously ogrowing reliance of Baroque music on harmony obasso continuo makes the texture bind and clarifies the harmony oground bass: music constructed from the bottom up; bass instruments play a single short figure many times and generate the same set of repeated harmoniesabove this ground bass, upper instruments/voices play different melodies adjusted to harmonies determined by bassobasso ostinatois another name, means “persistent” bass ostinato: also refers to any short musical gesture repeated over and over again; building block of music very prominent in African music (interlocking ostinatos) •functional harmonyoBaroque musicians developed the major/minor systemchords became standardized, sense of tonality grew stronger