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O vesticulospinal transmits motor impulses that

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o Vesticulospinal – transmits motor impulses that maintain muscle tone; helps maintain balance duringstanding and walking.What is Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, coma, insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, hydrocephalus, grand malepileptic seizure, meningitis, petit mal epileptic seizure, paralysis, poliomyelitis, quadriplegia, andparaplegia?Chapter 13 – Peripheral Nervous System• What is the general function of the peripheral nervous system?
of receptors based on each of these characteristics including the following examples: o Proprioception –brain is aware of body position from the muscles, joints, and tendons 4 o Chemoreceptors – sensoryreceptors located in blood vessels and visceral organs, and their signals are not usually consciouslyperceived o Exteroreceptors – sensory receptors located on the skin o Interoreceptors – receptors deepto surface of the body (may be located in the skin, muscles, and visceral organs) o Photoreceptors –specialized receptors responsive to light energy • Know the general organization of somatosensorysystem (perceptual level, circuit level, receptor level and what is included in each level) including thefollowing: o Perceptual level (3rd order neuron) – somatosensory cortex o Circuit level (2nd order neuron)– begins in the spinal cord, medulla, pons, or reticular formation and terminates in the thalamus orcerebellum o Receptor level (1st order neuron) – begins at a sensory receptor and terminates at thespinal cord • What is the adaption of sensory receptors? Do pain receptors adapt? Do smell receptorsadapt quickly? • What is referred pain? • What is the name of the area of the skin that provides sensoryinput to the CNS via a spinal nerve? • What are the names of the connective tissue coverings that makeup a peripheral nerve? Which connective tissue layer directly encloses the axon? What connective tissuelayer covers bundles of nerve fibers? • Remember that most nerves are mixed which mean that theycontain sensory and motor components. Sensory nerves travel toward the CNS and enter into the back ofthe spinal cord (through the dorsal root ganglion and into the dorsal horn). Motor nerves travel out of thespinal cord and towards the muscle (they enter the ventral horn of the spinal cord). • What nerves enterand exit from the cervical and lumbar enlargements? Be able to name the 4 nerve plexuses, the mainnerves out of these plexuses and the purpose of each nerve. How many nerves exit from each area of thespinal cord? • Know the names of the 12 cranial nerves, their names and which ones are mixed, onlysensory or only motor. • Be aware of the homeostatic imbalances associated with cranial nerve injury like:anosmia (I), anopsia (II), external strabismus (III) and pupils constrict (parasympathetic effect), doublevision (IV), tic douloureux (V), internal strabismus (VI), Bell’s Palsy (VII), nerve deafness (VIII), impaired

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Term
Spring
Professor
Naravane
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