The williams institute estimated that by 2008 there

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was already impacting its ranks. The Williams Institute estimated that by 2008 there were approximately 48,500 gay, lesbians, and bisexuals in the U.S. military. One can assume that because the Army is the largest branch of the military, a large portion of those was in the Army alone. The report also estimated that not only was this becoming an unpopular policy in the public eye, it had also cost the Department of Defense anywhere between 290 million to 500 million dollars since the enactment of Don't Ask Don't Tell in 1994. (Gates, 2010). Challenges and Environmental Issues While also being heavily bureaucratic, military organizations such as the U.S. Army are heavily reliant on a hierarchical structure. These hierarchical mechanisms are essential for these types of institutions because they give military personnel a clear way of identifying where authorities that control them are derived. It also provides the institution with a clear sense of order and discipline. Although hierarchies are essential in other organizations, they are crucial and cannot be questioned because, in war, there is no room for second-guessing orders. Another clear hierarchical structure of the U.S. military, in particular, is the evident power civilian
PRESSURES FOR CHANGE IN THE MILITARY 6 authorities have to the uniformed personnel. This type of control over the armed forces is specifically designed to avoid subversive activities or potential overthrow of the government by military force. The article by Holmberg and Alvinus also identifies meritocracy as another characteristic of military organizations. The authors claim that "[meritocracy] goes hand in hand with and supports the organizational feature hierarchy, as the organization promotes the individual that is considered to contribute to the goals of the organization at any given point in time" (Holmberg & Alvinus, 2019, p. 134). Another input in the organizational framework that is not only impactful but rather unique to the U.S. military is the diversity of its ranks. Unlike the Swedish Army, which was the one explored by the authors of my chosen article, the U.S. Army is as racially and as culturally diverse as our country. It is important to note that cultural diversity was not explored as a characteristic by the authors, presumably due to the mostly homogenous composition of the Swedish population. On the other hand, the U.S. Army is just as diverse as the population of the United States, with Soldiers within the ranks representing all fifty states. According to a Pew Research Center article, "As the country has become more racially and ethnically diverse, so has the U.S. military . Racial and ethnic minority groups made up 40% of the Defense Department's active-duty military in 2015, up from 25% in 1990. In 2015, 44% of all Americans ages 18 to 44 were racial or ethnic minorities" (Parker, Cilluffo, & Stepler, 2017). In understanding how decisions are made, and how change is implemented, it is vital to understand the characteristics of the organization, but also the human element and personal factors of the internal community writ large.

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