The students should give examples from their own experiences about an inequitable situation. Among the actions people take here include: They will reduce their inputs, they will try to change the outputs or rewards they receive, they will distort the inequity, they will change the object of comparison, or they will leave the situation. AACSB: Analytic Blooms: Apply Kinicki - Chapter 12 #137 Learning Objective: 12-03 Is a good reward good enough? How do other factors affect motivation? Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Process Perspectives on Employee Motivation 138. Explain expectancy theory, and discuss how managers can use this model to help motivate subordinates. Expectancy theory contains three elements: expectancy (belief in the ability to perform at a certain level), instrumentality (expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome), and valence (value or importance attached to a possible outcome. Managers can use this to make sure that employees are high on all three of these elements, because a deficiency in any one of them results in low motivation to perform. AACSB: Analytic Blooms: Understand Kinicki - Chapter 12 #138 Learning Objective: 12-03 Is a good reward good enough? How do other factors affect motivation? Level of Difficulty: 2 Medium Topic: Process Perspectives on Employee Motivation 139. Choose a job you have held or that you know about. Analyze its characteristics, according to the job characteristics model. If you managed subordinates with this job, what could you do to increase its motivational potential? The job should be analyzed as to its skill variety (how many different skills does your job require?), task identity (how many different tasks are required to complete the work?), task significance (how many other people are affected by your job?), autonomy (how much discretion does your job give you?), and feedback (how often do you find out how well you're doing?). To increase motivation these five core characteristics should be considered as they affect three critical psychological states: meaningfulness of work, responsibility for results, and knowledge of results. In turn, these positive psychological states fuel high motivation, high performance, high satisfaction, and low absenteeism and turnover. AACSB: Analytic Blooms: Apply Kinicki - Chapter 12 #139 Learning Objective: 12-04 Whats the best way to design jobs-adapt people to work or work to people? Level of Difficulty: 3 Hard Topic: Job Design Perspectives on Motivation
140. Draw a map of and explain the job characteristics model. Include job characteristics, psychological states, outcomes, and contingency factors. The model has four parts: Job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Psychological states: meaningfulness of work, responsibility for work, knowledge of results.
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- Management, a. Maslow, b. Herzberg