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honey, and four of olive oil. Slaves must each pay half of this amount.Source:The Treaty of Tudmir, 713 CE. Vocabulary coerced: forced sacred: religious fugitives: people running from the law dinar: Muslim coins made of gold or silverprotected person: person under the rule of the empire conceal:hide Document C: Fred Donner Fred Donner is a historian at the University of Chicago who specializes in early Islam and early Islamic expansion. Below is an excerpt from his book where he challenges some of the common knowledge about early Islamic conquests. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu
During the conquest period the granting of gifts, which had been practiced by Muhammad, became more regularized and eventually institutionalized.In the first place, there was established a system of stipendsor direct salary payments ('ata-') to warriors serving in the Islamic armies. . . . Tribesmen in the Islamic armies who rebelled against the regimenow did so at the cost of losing the stipends that the regime provided. Similarly, stipends were granted to some Persian or Aramean nobles(dihqans) who cooperated with the Muslims in Iraq. In most cases, it appears that these individuals were required to embrace Islam in order to receive their stipend.Source:Excerpt from Fred Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests, 1981. Vocabulary institutionalized: established as part of the government stipends: payment regime: government in power nobles: ruling class Graphic Organizer Central Historical Question: How did the early Islamic empire expand?After examining the map on Islamic expansion make a hypothesis for the following question:How did the early Islamic empire expand? They expanded when Muhammad, Rashidun Caliphate, and the Umayyad Caliphate ruled from 622-750. STANFORD HISTORY EDUCATION GROUP sheg.stanford.edu