Anat of Arg Worksheet II

Émile durkheim the elementary forms of religious

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Émile Durkheim The Elementary Forms of Religious Life , trans. Joseph Ward Swain, p. 2 24. [1] An anarchist can be not only a law teacher, but also a lawyer. [2] As a lawyer he adopts and expresses a professional point of view, the point of view of legal science, as Kelsen calls it, which does not commit him, and is understood not to commit him to the view that the law is just. Joseph Raz The Authority of Law , p. 142 25. Reason, says the skeptic, is the only judge of truth, and you ought to throw off every opinion and every belief that is not grounded on reason. Why, sir, should I believe that faculty of reason more than that of perception? -- [1] they both came out of the same shop, and [2] were made by the same artist; and [3] if he puts one piece of false ware into my hands, what should hinder him from putting another? Thomas Reid An Inquiry into the Human Mind , p. 183 26. [1] The laws of nature are the rules according to which the effects are produced; but there must be a cause which operates according to these rules. [2] The rules of navigation never navigated a ship; [3] the rules of architecture never built a house. Thomas Reid Of Arguments for Necessity , p. 527 27. [1] Whereas reason is a universal instrument which can be used in all kinds of situations, bodily organs need some particular disposition for each particular action; hence [2] it is for all practical purposes impossible for a machine to have enough different organs to make it act in all the contingencies of life in the way in which our reason makes us act…This shows not merely that [3] the beasts have less reason than men, but that [4] they have no reason at all. Rene Descartes Discourse, I, p. 140 28. [1] It is quite evident that existence can no more be separated from the essence of God than the fact that its three angles equal two right angles can be separated from the idea of a triangle, or than the idea of a mountain can be separated from the idea of a valley. Hence [2] it is just as much of a contradiction to think of God (that is, a supremely perfect being) lacking existence (that is, lacking a perfection), as it is to think of a mountain without a valley. Rene Descartes Fifth Meditation, II, p. 46 29. [1] I have reviewed a succession of failures: failures to show that we must say that robots are conscious, failures to show that we must say that we can’t tell. I have concluded from these failures that [2] there is no correct answer to the question. [3] Robots may indeed have (or lack) properties unknown to physics and undetectable by us; but not the slightest reason has been offered to show that they do, as the ROBOT analogy demonstrates. It is reasonable, then, to conclude that [4] the question that titles this paper calls for a decision and not for a discovery. [5] If we are to make a decision, it seems preferable to me to extend our concept so that robots are conscious. Hilary Putnam “Robots,” Mind, Language and Reality , p. 407 30.
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