Chemotactic Factors Attract leukocytes to site of inflammation.Necessary for a longer period, occurs distal to inflammatory site to attract leukocytes from circulation.Helpful to inflammatory response by allowing widespread chemotactic activity.Eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxisReleased within seconds and exert immediate effectsin degranulationNeutrophil chemotactic factor
Attracts neutrophils to site of inflammation.Platelet Activating Factor Mast-cell derived lipid.Produced by removal of fatty aid from plasma membrane phosphatidylcholine.Can be produced in inflammation by neutrophils, monocytes, endothelial cells, and platelets.Identical activity of leukotrienes= endothelial cell retractions to increase vascular permeability, leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and platelet activation.NeutrophilsRemove debris in sterile lesions (burns) and phagocytosis ofbacterial in nonsterile lesions.Arrive with in 6-12 hrs. of injury.Mature cells are unable to divide and sensitive to acidic environment so they are short lived and become exudate.MonocytesLargest normal blood cell.Horseshoe nucleusArrive 1-7 days after injury.Produced in bone marrow, enter circulation to injury cite, become macrophages.Responsible for phagocytosis.Precursors for macrophages found inKupffer’s cells in liverAlveolar macrophages in lungsMicroglia in brain.Presents antigens to cd4 cells which triggers t cell immunity which triggers b cell immunity.Release cytokinesIL1-causes fever, activates phagocytes and lymphocytes, which release IL6IL6 stimulates production of acute phase reactants and promotes growth and simulation in blood cells.TNF can cause fever, increases synthesis of proinflam. Proteins by liver, causes muscle wasting, and induces thrombosis.Growth factors promote production and maturation of neutrophils.Macrophages once in tissues.ComplementBody’s most potent defenders especially against bacterial infx.
Classical pathway- activated by proteins of adaptive immune system (antibodies) bound to their specific targets (antigens)Lectin pathway- activate by mannose-containing bacterial carbsAlternative Pathway-activated by gram negative bacterial and fungal cell wall polysaccharides.KininPrimary-BradykininCauses VasodilationActs with prostaglandins to induce pain.Smooth muscle cell contractions.Increases vascular permeability.Activated by plasma kinin cascade.Prekallikrein kallikrein (by prekallikrein activator) kallikrein converts kininogenbradykininCoagulation Cascade Main substance fibrin= end product of coagulation cascade.Plasma proteins that form fibrinous meshwork at injured or inflamed site.Prevents spread of infectionTraps microorganisms and foreign bodies for removal of infiltrating cells (neutrophils and microphages)Forms clot, bleeding stops.
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