(Caliph): the successor to the prophet Din: Religion Dawlat: State ’Ulama : religious scholars, men learned in the Qur'an, Hadith and law "keepers of the moral conscience of the community" Qadi : judge Mufti: scholar or expert in religious law authorized to make rulings madhhabs : schools of jurisprudence (Hanafi, Hanbali, Malaki, Shafi'i) fiqh : jurisprudence or legal traditions (produces the shari'a ) fatwa : the legal rulings of a mufti, qadi or imam ijtihad : interpretation by analogy, comparison of situation from early Islam with the present kalam : dialectal theology, or logical argument, syllogism: a=b and b=c therefore a=c madrasa : school, often attached to a mosque. Talib is student and taliban is students Jihad: literally translated as “struggle” in the faith, but also translated as “holy war.” Mujahidin, abbreviated as “jihadis,” today refers to “holy warriors.”
Shi’a Islam A minority sect within Islam that became dominant in Iran and is also present in Arab countries, notably Iraq, where its most holy sites are located. Also large Shi’a communities in Lebanon, Yemen, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain.
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- Fall '09
- Islam, Imam, Qadi