The tyranny of monarchy and nobility the members of

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the tyranny of monarchy and nobility the members of this faction became known as the Girondins the actions of the Assembly and the Revolution immediately caught the attention and found considerably favor among many educated people in other countries across Europe o the threat posed by the French Revolution brought about a rapprochement between Austria and Prussia, rivals for domination in Central Europe, as well as a wary alliance between Great Britain and Russia o but it was not popular with everyone Edmund Burke contended the abstract rationalism of the Enlightenment threatened the historic evolution of any nation by undermining its monarchy, its established church, and what he considered the “natural” ruling elite o interestingly, however, popular respect for the British monarchy and the nobility soared as anti-French and –Catholic feeling came to the fore as scarcity increased fear of revolution o In 1791, the Holy Roman Emperor and Fredrick William II of Prussia signed the Declaration of Pilnitz, expressing their concern about the plight of the French monarchy and state the common interest of both sovereigns in seeing order restored to France the Assembly, despite warnings, declared war on Austria in April 1792 o the stated reason was fear that an Austrian invasion from the Southern Netherlands was imminent o this would pull France’s attention from internal problems and the importance of the Revolution popular fear that aristocrats and clergymen were betraying the Revolution eventually brought down the monarchy o the Brunswick Manifesto issued in July 1792 acted as a warning from Austria and Prussia that the French would be severely punished if the royal family were harmed but Parisians demanded that the king be immediately deposed o the Assembly proclaimed the monarchy suspended and ordered the royal family’s imprisonment In Sept 1792, Prussian army entered France the proximity of allied armies and the fear of betrayal at home let to the imprisonment in Paris of many people suspected of plotting against the Revolution fortunately, a rag tag group defeated the Prussians Delegates to a new assembly called the National Convention were selected by
universal male suffrage in elections dominated by Jacobins o In Nov 1792, emboldened by the military successes of France (who now occupied all of the Austrian Netherlands), the National convention promised fraternity and assistance to all peoples who want to recover their liberty o it also declared the outright annexation of Savoy and Nice and declared war on Britain and the Dutch in Feb 1793 abolished all feudal ducal dues and tithes in these territories when correspondence between the king and the Austrian government was discovered, the trial of Louis XVI became inevitable—he was executed on Jan 21, 1793 o the Girondins and Jacobins quarreled for power as the Convention and the Paris Commune vied for authority Girondins were popularly identified with the economic

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