Cantaloupes – they ground on the ground, have a very rough surface (bacteria stick to that rough surface), when you slice it, you transfer the bacteria to the inside of the cantaloupe (can be E.Coli, Salmonella, etc.)oOutbreaks of cantaloupe poisoning! Wash it before you slice itoStaphylococcus:oProduce a toxin which causes the problem (the toxin is heat-stable)oFound on our skin and nasal secretions (ex. Sneezing)oEx. Potato salad could be a problemoIt is very often handled, a lot of chopping involved; often stored under unstable temperaturesoOnset of symptoms withinHOURSoClostridium Botulinum:oMost dangerous bacterium that existsoBecause of the toxin it produces: botulinum toxin(0.0000001 grams can kill! Trace amount)oThere is an antitoxin available in the ERoSudden paralysis, you suspect botulinumoIt is an anaerobic bacterium(it multiplies most effectively in the absence of oxygen)oWhere does it come from?Spores of this bacterium are found in the soiloIt can be used therapeuticallyoBOTOX is a solution of botulinum toxin – it paralyzes musclesoHeadaches and migrainescan be eased with BotoxoChronic anal fissurescan be solved with BotoxoE. Coli 0157:H7:oClassic hamburger disease: killed 3 children in the US (still pink inside)oThis bacterium is found in the intestine of animalsoThis ONE particular variety can be deadlyoCook to an internal temperature of 70 deg CoBut… Cooking meat at high temperatures gives rise to benzopyrenes, and heterocyclic aromatic amines, which are known carcinogenso1996 in Scotland – world’s worst recorded outbreak of E.Coli poisoning: 21 deathsoA reputable butcher – John Barr Inc. – was the cause oThey used the same knife that they were cutting raw meat with to cut the cooked meatoSolution:oFood irradiationof hamburger meat could curb the E. Coli 0157:H7 problemoThat can kill the bacteria! But the public has a hard time accepting food irradiationoSPROUTScan be contaminated by E. Coli and Salmonella, because they are grown in a high moisture environment and prone to bacterial contamination (moisture is what bacteria love)oViruses can also be a problem:
49oHepatitis A:oIncubation period is 15~50 daysand the infection can last for monthsoFlu-like symptoms, diarrhea, jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin)oRestaurant chain in the US – Chi-Chi’s – had to be closed because people got sick because of some Scallions important from Mexico (they had been fertilized by manure, not properly washed hepatitis A)oDON’T LET FOOD SIT IN BETWEEN 5 DEG C AND 60 DEG CFOR ANY LENGTH OF TIME (2 HOURS)o30~35 seconds hand rub when you wash your handsCooking Demo!Chemical Change:oMaillard Reaction (1912): bread is heated to a significant temperature, and when toasted, the carbohydrates and protein in the bread combine, losing water (browning aspect)oAcrylamides are formed in this particular reactionoDehydration (-H2O)when cooking meatoPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)charcoal on meat (black)o2 dangerous molecules are formed (both carcinogenic):BenzopyreneMethylbenzanthraceneo
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- Spring '11
- Silent Spring, Food coloring, Sucralose, E number, Food additive