adjusted workloads on aerobic modalities accordingly during each MICT exercise session to ensure that actual HR responses aligned with the target HR. All MICT exercise prescription details for each group over the course of the 13-week training period are presented in Figure 1 .
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019 , 16 , 2088 4 of 14 2.3. High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) The personalized group interspersed MICT each week with one session of HIIT. All HIIT sessions were performed on the treadmill and commenced with a 5 min warm up performed at a light intensity (30– < 40% HRR) and concluded with a 5 min cool-down also completed at light intensity [ 13 ]. The HIIT protocol involved eight, 60 s interval bouts performed at the workload corresponding to 100% VO 2max , separated by 150 s active recovery bouts performed at light intensity (30– < 40%HRR). The HIIT protocol was based on previous research from our group [ 15 ]. After four weeks of HIIT, the number of interval bouts increased from eight to 10 for the next four weeks of training (week 5–8). For the last five weeks (week 8–13), the number of interval bouts increased to 12. The active recovery duration was held constant at 150 s throughout the 13-week intervention. All HIIT exercise prescription details for the personalized training group over the course of the 13-week training period are presented in Figure 1 . 2.4. Resistance Exercise Prescription Resistance training commenced during week four of the overall study for both treatment groups and was subsequently completed 3 days a week for the remainder of the intervention. All sessions were supervised by researchers who closely monitored adherence to the prescribed program, ensured proper technique for each exercise, and provided specific information on progression. 2.5. Resistance Training for the Standardized Group The resistance training program for the standardized treatment group was designed according to ACSM guidelines [ 13 ] and consisted of single and multi-joint exercises completed using machine modalities. The following exercises were performed: bench press, shoulder press, lateral pulldown, seated row, bicep curl, tricep pushdown, seated leg press, seated leg extension, prone lying leg curl, and seated back extension / flexion. Resistance training for all sessions consisted of two sets of 12 repetitions. Each exercise was completed at a moderate intensity of 5–6 on the modified Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale [ 16 ] and rated according to guidelines published by Sweet and colleagues [ 17 ]. Resistance was progressed every 2 weeks by ~3–5% of total weight lifted for the upper body and ~6–10% for lower-body exercises so that the session RPE of 5–6 was maintained across the training program. 2.6. Resistance Training for the Personalized Group The resistance training program for participants in the personalized treatment group was designed according to ACE guidelines [ 15 ] and consisted of multijoint / multiplanar exercises completed using free weight and machine modalities. The machine modalities that were used allowed for free motion during the exercise and therefore the range of motion was not limited to a specific arc. The following
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- Fall '19
- High-intensity interval training