founded the towns of Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield. They were led by Thomas Hooker, a Puritan minister who helped the Congregationalists define the exact tenets of their new faith. He soon became one of the first writers from the New World whose works were read and respected in England.Although the people of the Connecticut River Valley were deeply interested in religion, they also had a keen interest in the law. In 1639, they adopted the “Fundamental Orders” as a model for government. In 1662, Connecticutfinally became a separate colony in its own right when Charles II granted it a royal charter.Everett CollectionExpelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for challenging many of the standard beliefs of the Puritans, Anne Hutchinson (shown here at her trial) and her family resettled in territory that would become the colony of Rhode Island. After her husband died, she moved with her younger children to the Dutch colony along the Hudson River, where she was later killed in an Indian raid.
CHAPTER 2Section 2.3 The Next Step: Proprietary Colonies2.3 The Next Step: Proprietary ColoniesThe three corporate colonies—Virginia, Plymouth, and Massachusetts—had proven to the English that it was possible to establish settlements in North America. They had also clearly proven that these colonies did not conform well to the Spanish model. There was no gold or silver along the Atlantic shore that would make English investors wealthy overnight. But there was a different kind of wealth available that the first adventurers had missed—the land itself. If settlers came to a colony and worked the land well, then success was possible. Investors who had shied away from the New World after the failures in Newfoundland and Roanoke now sought to establish colonies in North America in the hopes of bringing wealth and honor to themselves and their families.Known as proprietors, they sought charters from the English crown. The English mon-archs of the 17th and early 18th centuries, including Charles I, Charles II, and George II, were more willing to take risks on settlements in North America than rulers of the previous century. They granted huge tracts of land to proprietors both as rewards for their loyalty and to establish integral parts of England’s growing empire. Between 1634 and 1732, proprietors established a colony north of Virginia along the Chesapeake Bay known as Maryland; four colonies between Virginia and Massachusetts known as the Middle colonies; and three more colonies south of Virginia later identified as the Deep South. (See Figure 2.2.)Eventually, the proprietors discovered that to attract settlers, their colonies had to adopt certain traits that were already common to England’s other colonies in North America. Above all else, settlers who came to these proprietary colonies expected to own land, par-ticipate in colonial legislatures, and enjoy all the rights of English people that King James I had guaranteed to the first colonists of Jamestown.Lord Baltimore and the Founding of MarylandGeorge Calvert, also known as Lord Baltimore,
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 34 pages?
- Fall '16
- Thirteen Colonies, British colonization of the Americas