3. Political model Useful for making non-programmed decisions when: Conditions are uncertain Information is limited, and There is disagreement among managers Need to build coalition with other managers who support a specific goalDecision-making models6 Steps in decision-making process 1.Recognition of decision requirement 2.Diagnosis and analysis of causes 3.Development of alternatives 4.Selection of desired alternative 5.Implementation of chosen alternative 6.Evaluation and feedbackPersonal decision framework Differences among people with respect to how they perceive problems and make decisions Research suggests 4 major decision styles: 1.Directive style 2.Analytical style 3.Conceptual style 4.Behavioural styleDecision-making success and failure Decision making success judged by implementation: Long-term use and Degree of use Failure is commonWhy do managers make poor judgements?Being influenced by initial impressions. Justifying past decisions. Seeing what they want to see. Perpetuating the status quo. Being influenced by emotions. OverconfidenceWhy is failure so common? 1. Poor tactics 2. Short cuts (time pressure) 3. SubtletiesImprove decision-making success Tactics managers use to implement strategic decisions:
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Practice what you know Resist pressures for a quick fix Accept uncertainty and ambiguity Recogise subtleties in what works and doesn’t
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