Protects people from depression and helps buffer

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Protects people from depression and helps buffer stress - Belief in our superiority can also motivate us to achieve create a self- fulfilling prophecy - Can poison a group and inflate people’s judgments of their groups o Group-serving bias o Explaining away outgroup members’ positive behaviors, also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions while excusing such behavior by one’s own group Unrealistic optimism (Weinstein, 1980) - Relative pessimism about others’ fates - See themselves as far less likely to experience negative events - Increases our vulnerability o Believing ourselves immune to misfortune o Do not take sensible precautions - Overestimate their chances of gain Defensive pessimism (Norem, 2000) - Adaptive value of anticipating problems and harnessing one’s anxiety to motivate effective action - Save us from the perils of unrealistic optimism - Anticipates problems and motivates effective coping False consensus effect (Krueger & Clement, 1994) - Tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s opinions and one’s undesirable or unsuccessful behaviors - Serve our self-image by seeing our talents and moral behaviors as relatively unusual
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False uniqueness effect (Goethals & others, 1991) - Tendency to underestimate the commonality of one’s abilities and one’s desirable or successful behaviors Introspection - The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings and motives - Csikszentmihalyi and Figurski (1982) o The process of introspection is flawed o Participants wore beepers for a week o Asked to record what they were currently thinking o Only 8 % of recorded thoughts dealt with the self - Wilson & Schooler (1991) o Participants taste-tested different jams o Some asked to list reasons for jam preferences o Listed reasons: agreed less with the consumer reports ratings Self-perception theory (Bem, 1972) - When internal cues are difficult to interpret - People gain self-insight by observing their own behavior - People determine their attitudes and preference by interpreting the meaning of their own behavior - I am what I do - Laird (1973) o Participants evaluated a series of cartoons o Instructed to either smile or frown o Smiled: cartoons rated funnier and reported being happier o Facial expressions can affect emotion through a process of self- perception Self-presentation - Act of expressing oneself and behaving in ways designed to create a favorable impression or an impression that corresponds to one’s ideals - Active self-presentation depletes energy diminished effectiveness - Can unexpectedly improve mood Self-handicapping (Berglas & Jones, 1978) - Protecting one’s self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure Self-monitoring - Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one’s performance to create the desired impression
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Spotlight effect - The belief that others are paying more attention to one’s appearance and behavior than they really are Illusion of transparency - The illusion that our concealed emotions leak out and can be easily read by others
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