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Muhammad goes on to say, however, that he is the prophet to whom Allah has given the most complete revelation of his plan. He is the final prophet through whom Allah would reveal His message to humanity, and this message is what drives the new religion of Islam (‘submission’).
Now, there are repeated attacks on Medina by the Meccans, but these attacks are repelled by Muhammad and his followers and by this time the adherents of Islam make it into a viable political and military as well as a religious force. Indeed, Muhammad and his followers fight a series of bloody conflicts and by 630, they attack Mecca and conquer the city. They force the elites to adopt Muhammad’s faith, impose a government dedicated to Allah (and to this day, non-Muslims, for the most part, are not allowed within the city limits of Mecca), and destroy the pagan shrines, replacing them with mosques. Only the Kaaba escapes being dismantled, but it is cleansed of the idols that reside there, and only the blackstone remains. To redefine the Kaaba within the context of Islam, Muhammad proclaims that all Muslims should make a pilgrimage to Mecca and the Kaaba (hajj). In many ways, this goes somewhat against the orders of idolatry, but Muhammad probably believes that, in order to make his religion more popular with the people o f Mecca, he needs to compromise.Muhammad continues to articulate the beliefs of his religion. He states that Muslims, as a condition of their religious obligation, mush adhere to the Five Pillars of Islam: 1) Recognize Allah as the only god and Muhammad as his prophet 2) Muslims must pray to Allah daily while facing Mecca 3) Muslims must fast during the daylight hours of the month of Ramadan 4) Alms should be given to the weak and the poor, and 5) those who are physically and financially able must undertake the hajj and make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca.Beyond these obligations, Islamic holy law (sharia) emerges after Muhammad’s death to make it a way of life as well as a religious doctrine. It gives precise guidance on matters such as marriage, family life, crime, political authority, slavery, business relationships, inheritance, etc. These core obligations are later joined by another obligation, that of jihad. Not all Muslims observe the obligation of jihad, which means ‘struggle.’ Now, Jihad requires those who observe it to fight vice and evil or want to help others (so in some cases, jihad can mean some sort of charity work or community service). Jihad can also mean an obligation of Muslims to take up the sword and wage war against infidels who threaten Islam. It can also mean calling on Muslims to struggle against unbelief by spreading the word of Islam and seeking converts to the faith. These last two types of Jihad, then, have led many in the West to define the term Jihad as ‘holy war,’ although that term and Jihad are not necessarily synonymous at all times. But if you look at the West’s only real experience with jihad, you find that But Jihad certainly helps to spread the word of Islam in Muhammad’s last years, when his followers bring most of the Arabian peninsula under their control.