Lan devices repeaters amplify signal no added

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LAN Devices Repeaters – amplify signal, no added intelligence, no filtering – Physical Layer (1) Hubs – used to connect multiple LAN devices, no added intelligence – Physical Layer (1) Bridges – Amplify signal, add some intelligence. A bridge forwards the data to all other network segments if the Media Access Control (MAC) or hardware address of the destination computer is not on the local network segment. Automatically forwards all broadcast traffic. Does not use IP address because IP is contained in the Network Layer (3) Data Link Layer (2) Switches – Will only send data to the port where the destination MAC address is, not to all ports. Primarily operate at the Data Link Layer (2), although extremely fast layer 3 devices combining switching and routing are being used. Routers – router opens packet and looks at either the MAC or IP address only forwards to the network that it is destined. Operates at Network Layer (3) Gateways – primarily software, can be multi-protocol, can examine entire packet. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Switches – Used in WANs and CANs. Use cell relay technology. LAN Extenders – remote access multi layer switch connected to host router, filters based on MAC address or Network Layer protocol, not capable of firewalling. WAN Technologies Rules for communicating between computers on a WAN
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Communications between large disparate networks. Private Circuit Technologies Evolved before packet switching networks. Dedicated analog or digital point-to-point connection. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), Point-to Point protocol (PPP), ISDN, xDSL. n Dedicated Line – indefinitely and continuously reserve for transmissions. n Leased Line – Type of dedicated line leased from carrier. Types and Speeds of Leased Lines: n Digital Signal Level 0 – DS-0 – single channel at 64KBps on a T1 n Digital Signal Level 1 – DS-1 – 1.544 MBps in US on a T1 and 2.108 MBps in Europe on a E1 n Digital Signal Level 3 – DS-3 – 44.736 MBps on a T3 n T1 – Transmits DS-1 data at 1.544 MBps on telephone switching network n T3 – Transmits DS-3 data at 44.736 MBps on telephone switching network n E1 – predominately used in Europe carries data at 2.108 MBps n E3 - predominately used in Europe carries data at 34.368 MBps SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol – developed in 1984 to support TCP/IP over low speed serial interfaces. Using Windows NT RAS, NT computers can use TCP/IP and SLIP to communicate to remote hosts. PPP - Point-to Point protocol – over dial up and dedicated links, includes login, password, and error correction. Operates at the Data Link Layer (2) and uses CHAP and PAP. ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network - integration of digital telephony and data transport. Digitization of the telephone network, allowing voice, data, etc. Overtaken by DSL. xDSL - Digital Subscriber Line – uses existing twisted pair telephone lines.
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