Adopted on July 28, 1951by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons, convened in accordance with General Assembly resolution 429 (V) of December 14, 1950. In the 21st century, natural disasters also force people to seek refuge in other countries. Today, the world is witnessing the largest population displacement in history. More than 65.6 million people around the world were forced to leave their homes as a result of conflict and persecution at the end of 2016. Among them, about 22.5 million refugees, more than half of whom have not reached the age of 18. Another 10 million stateless persons were denied citizenship and access to basic rights, such as education, health, employment, and freedom of movement. In a world where 20 people become displaced every minute as aresult of conflict or persecution, UNHCR’s activities are more important than ever. The Syrian crisis of population displacement has become the largest in the world. 6.3 million inhabitants of the country became internally displaced persons and almost 4 million were granted asylum in neighboring countries. It is estimated that 4.53 million people in difficult-to-reach or besieged areas need humanitarian assistance. Turkey has hosted over 2.9 million Syrian refugees. Most of them live in cities, and about 260,000 are in 21 government refugee camps. Over a million Syrian refugees are registered in Lebanon, and 660,000 in Jordan. A growing number of Syrian refugees are arriving in Iraq, where more than 241,000 people are already located. However, UNHCR is assisting more than 122,000 Syrian refugees in Egypt. IN Conclusion ,refugees are helped and given many opportunities to continue their existence.80.Consider the phenomenon of the ‘new migration’ concerning the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the transformations occurring in the countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, Europe has witnessed the birth of what has been termed the new migration. This 'new migration' has been marked by two main events. First, the opening of borders between East and West led to the migration of some five million people in Europe between 1989 and 1994. Second, war and ethnic strife in the former Yugoslavia has resulted in a surge of approximately five million refugees into other regions of Europe. The geographical patterns of European migration have also shifted, with the lines between countries of origin andcountries of destination becoming increasingly blurred. Countries in Southern and Central Europe have become destinations for many migrants, a notable departure from earlier immigration trends. Another feature of the 'new migration' is that of ethnic 'urunixing'. In the former Soviet Union, the former Yugoslavia and in some Central European states, shifting borders, changing political regimes or the outbreak of conflict have led to migrations on the principle of 'ethnic affinity'. A clear illustration of this can be seen in the case of the thousands of ethnic Russians who found themselves living in newly independent countries - such as Latvia, Kazakhstan and Ukraine following the break-up of the Soviet Union. Many of them are choosing to migrate back to Russia as part of a process of ethnic unmixing.
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