Therefore the rule for calculating the change in the

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Therefore, the rule for calculating the change in the enthalpy of a reaction form the bond energies of each forming and breaking bond is: notice that breaking a chemical bond always require energy and forming bonds always releases energy Bond Length just as we can tabulate bond energy we can tabulate bond length, which represents the average length of a chemical bond between two atoms over a large number of molecules like bond energy, the bond length depends not only on the atoms involved, but also on the type of bond involved between the two atoms: single, double, or triple In general, in terms of length: triple bonds < double bonds < single bonds bonds generally get weaker as the bond length increases but this isn't always the case - although it does tend to b e Metal-Metal Bonding: The Electron Sea Model
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atoms have a tendency to lose electrons, and therefore have relatively low ionization energies when metals bond together to form a solid each metal atom donates one or more electrons to form an electron sea for example in the sodium solid each sodium atom donates an electron to form a sodium ion the sodium ions are held together to their attraction to the sea of electrons this electron sea model explains many of the properties of metals, such as their ability to conduct electricity as opposed to localized electrons of ionic solids, electrons of metallic solids are free to move the movement or flow of electrons in response to an electric charge or voltage is known as an electric current this electron sea model also explains why metals are so malleable (can be pounded into sheets) and so ductile (metals can be stretched out) - because there are no specific bonds in a metal it can be deformed relatively easily by having the metal ions slide past one another
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