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organization. In other words, whether it assembles vehicles or forecasts the weather, for an organization to succeed at what it does, it needs employees with certain qualities, such as particular kinds of skills and experience. This view means employees in today’s organizations are not interchangeable, easily replaced parts of a system but the source of the company’s success or failure. By influencing who works
for the organization and how those people work, human resource management therefore contribute to such basic measures of an organization success as quality, profitability and customer satisfaction.Human resource management is critical to the success of organizations, because human capital has certain qualities that make it valuable. In terms of business strategy, an organization can succeed if it has a sustainable competitive advantage. We can conclude that organizations need that kind of resource thatwill give them such advantage. Human resources have these necessary qualities: 1) are valuable, 2) are rare, 3) cannot be imitated and 4) have no good substitute.3.In what ways are women typically disadvantaged in employment relationships? What factors explain this disadvantage?Women often disadvantaged by pay and often receive less than men and are often passed up for promotions. Workers are also employed in part-time, temporary, casual, and/or contract jobs. These types ofworkers re referred to as being “precariously employed” because they are often poorly paid, have little job security, and lack statutory and employment benefits. Women are among those who hold precarious employment as well as immigrants, and visible minorities. Women have more difficulty at meeting their employer’s expectations at work in terms of their availability for work and overtime due to the demands of child care and eldercare, which is predominantly done by women. As such, one could say that most jobs are deigned on the “male” model, whereby paid employment is the primary task of the employee, and social reproduction is taken care by someone else. This often resultsin women having to take part-time work or flexible positions so that they can meet their family responsibilities. As previously mentioned, this would be deemed “precarious employment” which means that the employees are often poorly paid—thereby being disadvantaged in employment relationships. Therefore, this contributes to lower salaries, and lesser access to benefits, training, and promotion. Women are thereby financially vulnerable and potentially more dependent upon a partner or social programs.Women are typically the ones who typically care for a family member who are ill, recovering, elderly or sick children.For Human Resource Management, this means that notionally technical HRM decisions such as job design, performance management and health and safety are often based on the male norm. Although HRM decisions looked to be neutral and equal with human rights laws, they inadvertently create a system that disadvantages women in employment relationships.