represent the core values of the organization’s culture those taken for granted and highly resistant to change How Employees Learn Culture Symbol an object, act, quality, or event that conveys meaning to others covey most important values In terms of organizational culture, a symbol is an artifact, act, quality, or event that conveys meaning to others Story narrative based on true events, which is repeated – and sometimes embellished upon – to emphasize a particular value Hero person whose accomplishments embody the values of the organization Rites and rituals activities and ceremonies, planned and unplanned, that celebrate important occasions and accomplishments in the organization’s life In the Mary Kay Cosmetics Co., the best salespeople receive pink Cadillacs in special awards ceremonies. This is an example of a: A. Symbol B. Value C.Rite or ritual D.Both A and C What organizational benefits are associated with what organizational cultures?
The Importance of Culture An organization’s culture matters Employees are happier with clan cultures Elements of these cultures can be used to boost innovation and quality Changing the organizational culture won’t necessarily boost financial performance (but it might) Market cultures tend to produce better results Ways to Change Organizational Culture 1. Formal statements 2. Slogans & sayings 3. Rites & Rituals 4. Stories, legends, & myths 5. Leader reaction to crises 6. Role modeling, training, & coaching 7. Physical design 8. Rewards, titles, promotions, & bonuses 9. Organizational goals & performance criteria 10.Measurable & controllable activities 11.Organizational structure 12.Organizational systems & procedures Organizational Structure Organization
a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people – Chester Barnard’s definition For-profit, nonprofit, mutual-benefit The Organization: Three Types For-profit organizations formed to make money, or profits, by offering products or services Nonprofit organizations formed to offer services to some clients, not to make a profit Mutual-benefit organizations voluntary collectives whose purpose is to advance members’ interests The United Way, a charitable organization, is considered a ______ organization. The Organization Chart Organization Chart – who specializes in what, who reports to whom box-and-lines illustration showing the formal lines of authority and the organization’s official positions or work specializations Horizontal specialization- VP marketing, sales, accounting
Common Elements of Organizations 1. Common purpose - unifies employees or members and gives everyone an understanding of the organization’s reason for being 2. Coordinated effort – the coordination of individual effort into group wide effort 3. Division of labor – arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people 4. Hierarchy of authority - control mechanism for making sure the right people do
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