Horace Fletcher: doesn’t matter what you eat, as long as you chew it to a pulp. James Salisbury: grain was for animals. We should it meat. Ancel Keys: physiologist known for foundation of lipid-hypothesis, which is the notion that heart disease is linked to cholesterol levels in the blood which is linked to the amount of saturated fat in the diet. He knew about different researches: - Nikolai Anichkov: fed rabbits with cholesterol and determined that led to build up in deposits of arteries which were capable of triggering heart disease. - John Gofman: found that cholesterol was carried around in bloodstream mixed with proteins. Lipoprotein were linked to heart disease. Atherosclerosis: a problem in newer public health. Plaque builds up in arteries and increases risk of heart disease.
Isle of Crete: 30% of calories came from fat, but very low incidence of heart disease. Maasai (Africa): diet high in fat: lot of meat and milk. They have high cholesterol level but low incidence of heart disease. A lot of other populations in the world do not fit into Keys’ theory. Australian Aborigines: high rate of heart disease, low level of blood cholesterol, low animal fat intake. John Yudkin: looked at Keys’ data and wondered if we should look at sugar intake too as opposed to only fat. Explained that heart disease correlates with sucrose in the diet because of the intercorrelation of sucrose with saturated fat. - Looked at several populations - St Helena island: high heart disease rate associated with low-fat diet, but high in sugar. - Questioned heart attack patients and found they had been eating twice as much sugar as control group. - Effect of sugar on a person’s lipid profile: The body's cells generally prefer to use glucose as their primary energy source. When simple carbohydrates like sugar are consumed, their metabolism takes priority over other nutrients, causing the metabolism of triglycerides to slow and levels to build up. High intake of these refined carbohydrates has also been shown to increase small particle LDL levels and decrease HDL levels. Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death. - Could be linked to fat - Could be linked to sugar - No single truth because overall diet matters Build up of plaque in coronary arteries. Risk factors for heart disease: - Low birth rate - Male - Hypertension - Inactivity - Obesity - Smoking - Diabetes - Stress - Microbes: some bacteria and viruses can affect the heart and predispose to heart disease Homocysteine: formed in the body from methionine (AA). This breaks down into various metabolites (b vitamins).
Kilmer McCully: fed homocysteine to rabbits and triggered heart disease. Association, but no causation proof yet. Typical range of HC: - Men: 8-12 micromol/L - Women: 6-10 micromol/L How do you reduce HC and will it have an effect in reducing the risk of heart disease?
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