By breaking away from the English sect they were able to form a new religion by

By breaking away from the english sect they were able

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of life and claimed to have the power to interpret the past and present. By breaking away from the English sect, they were able to form a new religion by incorporating parts of Christianity into there Giyuky religion. For example, they believed in the communion of one’s ancestor which is found in the Bible, due to their strong cultural sense of retaining lifetime connections to one's an- cestors. They were also able to keep practicing their traditional customs while counting the cycle of polygamous marriages. The African people also got rid of human-made creations such as spoons, money, and other foreign objects that were brought by Europeans due to its significance of being manmade and thus represented filth, or uncleanness due to not naturally being found in nature. Through their refusal to submit to the threats of giving up their cultural traditions to fol- low the European version of Christianity, they were able to save such customs for future genera- tions while still supporting some of the laws of Christianity.
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Frank 3 Another proof of agency shown by Africans was in relation to protecting their agricul- tural rights through the formation of agricultural societies such as the Arusha and Meru Native Coffee Planter’s Association (AMNCPA)of 1928. Such farming associations were formed to pro- tect and defend the farmers’ interests against increasing government intrusion due to coffee being an “extremely lucrative and popular crop by the 1960s” (CCC&C 166). Africans continually re- ceived pressures from European administration who tried to place restrictions on the Africans rights to grow coffee, land received for cultivation, spraying of plants, and interplanting various crops together. However, the most enduring conflict resulted from the government's attempt to mandate and control how the Arusha and Meru marketed their coffee. Through multiple attempts of the District officers creating regulations, co-operatives and evening establishing a Native Cof- fee Board that would be responsible for controlling coffee production and marketing they were still met with the Africans refusal to cooperate. The government getting frustrated with the re- fusal of the Arusha and Meru tried to form ordinances that mandated the cooperation of the peo- ple through the establishment of a marketing board which would “regulate planting, cultivation, harvesting, and processing as well as marketing’’ (CCC&C 168). Again the Africans refused to sell their coffee to the board and even went as far as threatening to uproot their trees and rejected compulsory marketing through the Board. They also rioted against the European powers when Native Authorities tried to tax and finance coffee regulations, which due to the difficulty of get- ting the farmers to follow them led to its discontinuation. In the end, Arush and Meru finally agreed to form an official sanction and framed cooperative societies such as the Mere Growers Cooperative society. Due to its success, the society hired an American adviser who negotiated re- duced brokers commons to accord to the lower paid ones of Europeans. Through this coopera-
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