suggests that an individual’s personality develops throughout the lifespan based on a series of social relationships, which is a departure from Freud’s more biology-oriented view and that Freud believed that personality development had occurred by the phallic stage in his theory.Erikson emphasized that social relationships are important at each stage of personality development, in contrast to Freud’s emphasis on sex.In contrast to Freud’s five stages of psychosexual theory of development which include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
stages, Erikson identified eight stages, each of which represents a conflict or developmental task:(1)Basic trust vs. mistrust which occurs at 1 year of age, (2) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt which occurs from ages 2 to 3, (3) Initiative vs. guilt which occurs from ages 4 to 5, (4) Industry vs. inferiority which occurs during the latency years, (5) Identity vs. role diffusion which occurs in adolescence, (6) Intimacy vs. isolation which occurs during early adulthood, (7)Generativity vs. stagnation which occurs in adulthood, and (8) Integrity vs. despair which occurs in later years. Erickson’s theory states that the development of a healthy personality and a sense of competence depend on the successful completion of each task.Erikson further developed the field of ego psychology by emphasizing that the ego is not merely an avenue for the id to fulfill its desires as Freud claimed, but an important psychological structure in its own right.
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