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oUnited States v. Harris (1882)Declared federal law to punish crimes such as murder and assault unconstitutional. Declared such crimes to be the sole concern of local government. Ignored the frequent racial motivation behind such crimes in the south.oCivil Rights Cases (1883)Struck down Civil Rights Act of 1875. Declared that Congress may not legislate on civil rights unless a state passes a discriminatory law. Declared the 14thAmendment silent on racial discrimination by private citizens.oPlessy v. Ferguson (1896)Upheld LA stature requiring “separate but equal” accommodations on railroads. Declared that segregation is not necessarily discrimination.oWilliams v. Mississippi (1898)Upheld state law requiring a literacy test to qualify for voting. Refused to find any implication of racial discrimination in the law, although it permitted illiterate whites to vote if they “understood” the Constitution. Using such laws, southern states rapidly disfranchised blacks.Leisure Times4
AMH2020 Midterm ReviewoPeople started moving from farms and into the bigger cities.oAfter working 10/12 hours a day and 6 days a week you are “off”—new concept—for people working in factories.oSportsDate from the Civil War. Baseball, Rugby. Learned while soldiers were fighting in the war and then brought the games home after the war to play in their towns.Baseball:•Universities would play regular city teams.•Entrenched itself as the national pastime.Track:1870 a side show to rowing.Bicycle:after the invention of the rubber tire it became a bigger sport because the tire made the ride more comfortable.In 1895 the first sport section was printed in the newspaper.Basketball:Started in Springfield MA. 1891—by James Naysmith. Used a peach basket.Horseracing:After the Civil War it becomes popular. Kentucky Derby—1875. 1st25 jockeys to win were African Americans. After that the African American jockeys were outlawed from the sport.Boxing:John O’Sullivan went 75 rounds in a match in LA.Football:•1898—Chicago Normal’s were the 1stPro football team formed. 1sttruly pro football team. Are the Chicago Normal’s a pro team today? They are now the Phoenix Cardinals.•1905—Canton Bulldogs in Ohio. Basis for NFL. Used to salvage the “league” from completely ending. Set up standard rules.5
AMH2020 Midterm Review•Drew fans, although critics attacked the sport’s violence and the use of “tramp athletes,” non-students whom colleges pain to play.Intercollegiate Athletics Association:determined by a White House conference put together by Teddy Roosevelt—to clean up college sports. In 1910, became the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).oLate 19thCentury the vacation. Companies/factories that needed to close down for maintenance.