for all other activities. This average would then be 87.5% of the project manager salary. As an example, let us assume that the reconciled estimate of the effort needed to develop a software product is 240 person-day and the project manager daily pay rate is 500 dollars. Based on Table 1, we can then obtain the total cost of the software and the effort distribution as shown in Table 2. The total cost is 106650 dollars and the average rate for one person-day is 445 dollars. We can also schedule this project to be completed by 12 persons within 20 days according to the effort distribution shown in Figure 2. Table 2. Example effort and cost allocation to software activities Software phases effort cost Requirements 18 8550 Specifications 18 8550 Design 24 11400 Implementation 24 10200 Integration testing 18 8100 Acceptance & deployment 18 8100 Ongoing life-cycle activities Project management 20 10000 Configuration management 10 3750 Quality assurance 20 8000 Documentation 10 3500 Training and support 10 4000 Evaluation And testing (V&V) 50 22500 Total 240 106650 Figure 2. Schedule and effort distribution. The charts showing the effort and cost distributions among the phased and ongoing activities of the 240-day software development project areare shown in Figure 3. Excel sheets for the cost estimation and effort distribution are available from the author upon request. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS Issue 1, Volume 5, 201178
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(a)Effort distribution (b) cost distribution Figure 3. Effort and cost distribution.6 Conclusion In this paper, we have provided guidelines for the proper allocation of budget and human resources on the various activities of the software development process. The guidelines are based on some critical activities needed in medium to large software projects and on two requirements-based cost and effort estimation techniques. Further study on the margin of error of this guideline should follow in an empirical study based on metrics collected from various software projects. It is also interesting to analyze the guideline for various types of software applications. References:  K. Saleh, Software Engineering, J. Ross Publishing, Florida, USA, 2009.  A. Albrecht and J. Gaffney, “Software function, source lines of code and development effort prediction: a software science validation”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, November 1983.  G. Kamer, “Metrics for objector”, Diploma thesis, University of Linkoping, Sweden, No. LiTHIDA-Ex-9344:21, December 1993.  S. McConnell, Software Estimation: Demystifying the Black Art, Microsoft Press, 2006.  M. A. Parthasarathy, Practical Software Estimation: Function Point Methods for Insourced and Outsourced Projects, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2007.  K. Wiegers, Software Requirements, Microsoft Press, 2ndedition, 2003. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS Issue 1, Volume 5, 201179
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