Conceptualizations and Definitions of Culture

Culture consists of patterned ways of thinking

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"Culture consists of patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and specially their attached values" (Kluckhohn 1954). "[Culture consists of] a set of mental programs that control an individual's responses in a given context" (Hofstede 1980). "Culture reflects core values of individuals and are externalized in the form of symbols and rituals" (Hofstede 1980). "Culture is an observable aspect of human behavior which manifests in social interaction" (Adler 1986). "Culture shapes a society's core values and norms, which are shared and transmitted from one generation to another through social learning processes of modeling and observation, as well as through the effects of one's own actions" (Bandura 1986). "Culture is a set of rules or standards shared by members of a society, which when acted upon by the members, produce behavior that falls within a range of variation the members consider proper and acceptable" (Haviland 1990). From these definitions, it appears that culture is a set of learned characteristics shared by a particular group of people. It is reflected by their behavior and this behavior is accepted by the group.
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The process by which the culture phenomenon occurs appears to be strictly biological (Kolde 1982). Accepted in the definitions of culture is the concept of society, or of a cultural group. This is considered to be a set of people who: 1) occupy a specific locality, 2) share the same cultural traditions, 3) Choose the group in the expectation of having their needs fulfilled.
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