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27. The male and female reproductive systems have several anatomic and physiologic features incommon. Most obvious is their major function, reproduction, through which a 23-chromosome female gamete, the ovum, and a 23-chromosome male gamete, the spermatozoon (sperm cell), unite to form a 46-chromosome zygote that is capable of developing into a new individual. The male reproductive system produces sperm and delivers them to the female reproductive tract. The female reproductive system produces the ovum and, if it is fertilized, can nurture and protectit (at that point called the embryo and developing fetus) and expel it at birth.Chapter 254. Hirsutism is the abnormal growth and distribution of hair on the face, body, and pubic area in a male patter that occurs in women. There is also frontotemporal hair recession. These areas of hair growth are androgen sensitive. Variation of hair growth in women are great, and a male pattern can be normal. Women who develop hirsutism may be secreting hormones associated
with ovarian or adrenal disease, and such women should be evaluated for polycystic ovaries, adrenal hyperplasia, or adrenal tumors.6. A rectocele is the bulging of the rectum and posterior vaginal wall into the vaginal canal. During childbirth women may sustain damage that can lead to rectocele, but symptoms usually do not occur until several years after menopause. Familial and genetic predisposition and bowel habits contribute to rectocele development. Lifelong chronic constipation and straining may produce or aggravate a rectocele.7. Cystocele is descent of a portion of the posterior bladder wall and trigone into the vaginal canal and usually is caused by the trauma of childbirth. In severe cases the bladder and anterior vaginal wall bulge outside the introitus. Usually symptoms are insignificant in mild to moderate cases. Increased bulging and descent of the anterior vaginal wall and urethra can be aggravated by vigorous activity, prolonged standing, sneezing, coughing, or straining and can be relieved by rest or assumption of a recumbent or prone position.12. Vulvodynia (also referred to as vulvitis, vestibulitis, or vulvovestibulitis) is chronic pain and inflammation of the vulva or vestibule, or both. In many cases it may represent several disorderswithout an identifiable cause. Vulvodynia is fairly common, affecting approximately 8% of women at some point in life. Whereas the inflammation of vulvodynia may be caused by contactdermatitis (i.e., exposure to soaps, detergents, lotions, sprays, shaving, menstrual pads/tampons, perfumed toilet paper, tight-fitting clothes). The condition may be more complex and represent abnormalities in multiple systems, including vestibular mucosa, pelvic floor musculature, and CNS pain regulatory pathways.