They caused a split in the democratic party in the

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- They caused a split in the Democratic party in the 1948 presidential election. Strom ThurmanoDemocratic Governor of South CarolinaoLeader of Dixiecrat's- Anti-civil rights,- talked for 24 hours to prevent civil rights bill (filibuster)- States' Rights,- Party presidential candidate in 1948Executive Order 9981o- desegregates the Armyoissued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished discrimination "on the basis of race, color, religion or national origin" in the United States Armed Forces. Domestic Civil Rights vs Foreign Politicso- civil rights influences the cold war--> civil rights problems are embarrassing--> racial discrimination gives us bad press--> politicians get on board with civil rights in a new way- civil rights was dependent on people to become social actors in the movementFreedom TrainoThe 1947-1949 was proposed by Attorney General Tom C. Clark as a way to reawaken Americansto their taken-for-granted principles of liberty in the post-war yearsBrown vs Board of Education
o1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)Clark Doll Testo1940 They are recited the kids want to play with the white doll then the black doll even the black kids. They understood that the black doll is mean and ugly.--> showed the depths of racism in America at the timeLittle Rock NineoIn September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. Thenext day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.Orval FaubusoArkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.James MeredithoHe was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.1962Medgar EvansoHead of NAACP in Mississippi who was shot and killed in front of his home in 1963 by a memberof the KKKGeorge Wallaceo- Racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 - ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); - blocks black students from registering for classes at the University of Alabama- runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, - loses to Nixon; - runs in 1972 but gets shotEmmet Tillo- (August, 1955) Chicago Boy, - 14 years old.

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