There were no differences in any biomechanical measures between the NVF and NVF

There were no differences in any biomechanical

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There were no differences in any biomechanical measures between the NVF and NVF + shoes (ES < 0.17, p > 0.23); all other effects between shoes were trivial to small. Con- tact times were 2.5% ( p = 0.02), 1.6% ( p = 0.09), and 1.2% ( p = 0.22) longer in NVF shoes than the NZM shoes at 14, 16, at 18 km·h −1 for men, respectively. In the ADI shoes, contact times were 0.2, 0.9, and 0.8% longer compared with the NVF shoes ( p ≥ 0.17) at 14, 16, at 18 km·h −1 , respec- tively. For women, contact times between NVF and NZM shoes were not different at 14 and 15 km·h −1 ( p > 0.9), but 0.76% shorter at 16 km·h −1 ( p = 0.36) and 1.8% slower in the ADI shoes compared with the NVF shoes at all speeds (all p < 0.05). Contact times decreased with running veloc- ity at the faster running velocities in all shoes (all p < 0.01) (Table  5 ). There were no significant differences in stride rate between NVF and ADI ( p > 0.57) at any running velocities. Stride rate was also not different between NVF and NZM at 14 km·h −1 for men ( p > 0.70), but was 1.1 and 1.2% slower ( p ≤ 0.07) in the NVF shoes compared with the NZM shoes at 16 and 18 km·h −1 , respectively. Stride rate for females was 0.9, 1.7, and 1.0% slower ( p ≤ 0.08) in NVF compared with NZM, and 1.4, 1.7, 1.0% slower ( p ≤ 0.04) in the ADI shoes compared with the NZM shoes at 14, 15, and 16 km·h −1 , respectively. In men, the NVF shoe was associated with a 0.7% increase in stride length at 14 km·h −1 ( p = 0.54), but no difference was observed at 16 or 18 km·h −1 ( p ≥ 0.88) when compared with ADI, whereas differences in stride length were trivial between NVF and NZM shoes at 14 km·h −1 (0.2%, p = 0.67) and small at 16 or 18 km·h −1 (1.3 and 1.2%, respectively; p < 0.05). In females, stride length was 1.0% shorter in the NVF shoes compared with the ADI shoes at 14 km·h −1 ( p = 0.10), but not different at 15 or 16 km·h −1 ( p ≥ 0.85), whereas, compared with the NZM shoe, the NVF shoe was 0.5% ( p = 0.19), 1.3% ( p = 0.002), and 1.7% ( p = 0.001) longer at 14, 15, and 16 km·h −1 , respectively. Stride rate and stride length increased at the faster running velocities in all shoes (all p < 0.05) (Table  5 ).
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336 K. R. Barnes, A. E. Kilding Table 2 Rates of VO 2 , O 2 COT, and energetic cost for each of the four shoe conditions at three running velocities for men and women during level treadmill running Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation NZM Nike Zoom Matumbo 3, ADI Adidas Adios BOOST 3, NVF Nike Zoom Vaporffy, NVF + Nike Zoom Vaporffy plus weight to match of the ADI, VO 2 oxygen uptake, O 2 COT oxygen cost of transport 14 km·h −1 15 km·h −1 NZM ADI NVF + NVF NZM ADI NVF+ NVF Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Women VO 2 (ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) 44.72 ± 2.24 43.96 ± 2.70 45.43 ± 2.21 44.44 ± 2.41 44.06 ± 1.99 43.18 ± 2.54 43.38 ± 2.21 42.55 ± 2.58 47.76 ± 3.19 48.42 ± 3.07 47.14 ± 3.01 46.61 ± 3.09 O 2 COT (ml·kg −1 ·km −1 ) 191.7 ± 9.6 188.4 ± 11.6 194.7 ± 9.5 190.5 ± 10.3 188.8 ± 8.5 185.1 ± 10.9 185.9 ± 9.5 182.4 ± 11.0 191.1 ± 12.8 194.7 ± 12.3 188.6 ± 12.1 186.4 ± 12.4 Energetic cost (W·kg −1 ) 15.71 ± 0.76 15.46 ± 0.92 15.85 ± 0.71 15.54 ± 0.95 15.50 ± 0.63 15.21 ± 0.95 15.25 ± 0.71 15.01 ± 0.91 16.86 ± 1.13 17.05 ± 1.06 16.67 ± 1.06 16.55 ± 1.03 16 km·h −1 18 km·h −1 NZM ADI NVF + NVF NZM ADI NVF+ NVF Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Women VO 2 (ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) 52.44 ± 2.14 52.32 ± 2.39 53.61 ± 2.20 53.33 ± 2.35 51.85 ± 2.19 51.95 ± 2.31 51.26 ± 2.23 51.26 ± 2.27 60.49 ± 1.64 61.35 ± 1.12 59.69 ± 1.30 58.88 ± 1.31
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