33 E X \u593e\u5bbf\u820d \u593e\u79df\u5c4b 34 100 agreement is not possible in reality First if a given

33 e x 夾宿舍 夾租屋 34 100 agreement is not

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E X : 夾宿舍 / 夾租屋 34
100 % agreement is not possible in reality? First, if a given citizen is outvoted but truly beli eves that she has voted for the common good, the gen eral will is no less unified. She simply must accept that what she thought the general will demanded was incorrect. Thus, she should support the body politic s’ decision. Disagreement, therefore, is neither a threat to the general will’s expression nor the fre edom of the individual herself. 35
Second, the degree of agreement necessary will depen d on several external factors (the size of the stat e, the population, etc.) Rousseau offers two general rules for regulating this process: “ the first is t hat the more important and serious the decisions, th e closer the prevailing opinion should be unanimity; the second is that the more hastily the matter under consideration must be decided, the smaller the presc ribed majority should be.” 36
On the civil state Let us draw up the whole account in terms easily comm ensurable. What man loses by the social contract is h is natural liberty and an unlimited right to everythi ng he tries to get and succeeds in getting ; what he g ains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of all h e possesses . If we are to avoid mistake in weighing o ne against the other, we must clearly distinguish nat ural liberty , which is bounded only by the strength o f the individual , from civil liberty, which is limite d by the general will ; and possession , which is merel y the effect of force or the right of the first occup ier , from property, which can be founded only on a po sitive title . 37
Man loses Man gains Natural liberty Moral liberty possession property 38
What is moral liberty? THE PASSAGE from the state of nature to the civil state pro duces a very remarkable change in man, by substituting just ice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they had formerly lacked . Then only, when the voic e of duty takes the place of physical impulses and right of appetite, does man, who so far had considered only himself, find that he is forced to act on different principles, and to consult his reason before listening to his inclinations . Although, in this state, he deprives himself of some advant ages which he got from nature, he gains in return others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and developed, his i deas so extended, his feelings so ennobled, and his whole s oul so uplifted , that, did not the abuses of this new condi tion often degrade him below that which he left, he would b e bound to bless continually the happy moment which took hi m from it for ever, and , instead of a stupid and unimaginat ive animal, made him an intelligent being and a man . 39
We might, over and above all this, add, to what ma n acquires in the civil state , moral liberty , whic h alone makes him truly master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedien ce to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is lib erty .

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