device, be it a file server, workstation, switch, or printer. Every networking medium requires a specific kind of connector. The type of connectors you use will affect the cost of installing and maintaining the network, the ease of adding new segments or nodes to the network, and the technical expertise required to maintain the network. 6) A media converter is a piece of hardware that enables networks or segments running on different media to interconnect and exchange signals. For example, suppose a segment leading from your company’s data center to a group of workstations uses fiber-optic cable, but the workgroup hub can only accept twisted pair (copper) cable. In that case, you could use a media converter to interconnect the hub with the fiber-optic cable. 7) Coaxial cable, called “coax” for short, was the foundation for Ethernet networks in the 1980s and remained a popular transmission medium for many years. Over time, however, twisted pair and fiber-optic cabling have replaced coax in modern LANs. If you work on long-established networks or cable systems, however, you might have to work with coaxial cable. The two coaxial cable types commonly used in networks today, RG-6 and RG-59 , can terminate with one of two connector types: an F-Type connector or a BNC connector . F-Type connectors attach to coaxial cable so that the pin in the center of the connector is the conducting core of the cable. A BNC connector is crimped, compressed, or twisted onto a coaxial cable. It connects to another BNC connector via a turning-and-locking mechanism 8) Twisted pair cable consists of color-coded pairs of insulated copper wires, each with a diameter of 0.4 to 0.8 mm (approximately the diameter of a straight pin). Every two wires are twisted around each other to form pairs, and all the pairs are encased in a plastic sheath. A twisted pair cable may contain from 1 to 4200 wire pairs. Modern networks typically use cables that contain four wire pairs, in which one pair is dedicated to sending data and another pair is dedicated to receiving data. 9) STP (shielded twisted pair) cable consists of twisted-wire pairs that are not only individually insulated, but also surrounded by a shielding made of a metallic substance such as foil. Some STP use a braided copper shielding. The shielding acts as a barrier to external electromagnetic forces 10) UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cabling consists of one or more insulated wire pairs encased in a plastic sheath. As its name implies, UTP does not contain additional
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- Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable