Respondents rate the degree to which a particular

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anxiety. Respondents rate the degree to which a particular thought or belief typifies their thinking when anticipating or participating in a social interaction. The STABS has demonstrated adequate content validity, internal consistency, and construct validity; discriminated individuals with social anxiety from individuals with other anxiety disorders and those without disorders; and detected clinically important changes over time (see Stein et al., 2017). The Panic Beliefs Inventory (PBI; Wenzel, Sharp, Brown, Greenberg, & Beck, 2006) is a 35-item self-report inventory that was developed to assess dysfunctional attitudes and beliefs that increase the probability that panic disorder patients will have catastrophic responses to physical and emotional experiences. Preliminary evidence demonstrated that the PBI is internally consistent, valid, and sensitive to clinical change (Wenzel et al., 2006). The Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire (OBQ) was developed to assess dysfunctional beliefs (assumptions, attitudes) that were identified by a large group of international researchers, the OCCWG (2003, 2005) to represent the critical belief domains of obsessive-compulsive disorder. A factor analytic study (OCCWG, 2005) of 87 belief items found support for three factors: Responsibility/Threat Estimation, Perfectionism/ Certainty, and Importance/ Control of Thoughts. A 44-item version (OBQ-44) exhibited good internal consistency and validity in clinical and nonclinical samples (OCCWG, 2005). While the majority of material covered in this section has described efforts to measure cognitive aspects of anxiety within an individual’s awareness, attempts have also been made to assess the attentional biases of anxious individuals. Several paradigms have confirmed that people with anxiety disorders show selective processing of threat cues (see Bar-Haim, Lamy, Pergamin, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2007; Cisler & Koster, 2010; Mathews & MacLeod, 2005). Mathews and his colleagues (Butler & Mathews, 1983; MacLeod, Mathews & Cognitive Assessment 18
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Tata, 1986; Mathews & MacLeod, 1985) proposed that activation of schemata biased towards the processing of information related to personal danger or other threats is characteristic of anxiety states. Mathews and MacLeod (1985), for instance, used the Emotional Stroop Color- Naming Task and found that anxious participants took longer than controls to color-name words with a threatening (disease, coffin) as opposed to a neutral (welcome, holiday) content. Another measure derived from cognitive science is the Dot-Probe Paradigm (MacLeod et al., 1986), which assesses the degree of visual capture associated with a particular stimulus. Studies consistently report that anxious participants are more vigilant for or have difficulty disengaging from threat-related stimuli than nonpsychiatric controls (see Bar-Haim et al., 2007; Cisler & Koster, 2010). These results support the existence of cognitive “danger” schemata which, when activated, bias information processing at a pre-attentive level. The co-occurrence of attention and
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