Developed for chemical warfare they are irreversible

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Developed for chemical warfareThey are irreversible inhibitors of AChE, and by preventing the degradation of ACh, they probably kill their victims bycausing a desensitization of ACh receptorsBuildup of ACh at NMJ and depolarizes postsynaptic cell leading it to be refractory to subsequent activationToday they are used as insecticides (parathion, DDT)Strychnine (poisoning)Resembles genetic mutations of the glycine systemPowerful plant toxinIt is an antagonist of glycine at its receptorMild poisoning resembles hyperekplexiaHigh doses lead to uncontrollable seizures and eventually death from asphyxiationMore Toxins mentioned in the pptsSarin: AChE inhibitor; muscle depolarization = paralysis of diaphragm muscle = stop breathingConus geographicus: fish eating marine snail that paralyzes prey with conotoxin that blocks voltage sensitive calciumchannelsCurare: naturally occuring poision in poison darts and surgically to paralyze patients because it binds and blocksAChR channels from openingAutonomic NS innervation-look at first few pages of the guideDiagram of the Autonomic NS
Diagram of NS organization
Relative location of the meningesDura mater- the outermost of the three meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the central nervoussystem.Arachnoid- the middle of the three meninges, the three membranes that cover the surface of the central nervoussystem.Pia mater- the innermost of the three meninges, the membranes that cover the surface of the central nervoussystem.*ways to memorize: PAD for the brainThere are a few points that I feel are important in this module but were not mentioned above. I listed themhere just in case!CSF is made in the choroid plexus and is located between the arachnoid and pia mater (aka subarachnoidspace)There is no fluid between the arachnoid and dura mater; however, a subdural hematoma can occur if bloodvessels pop and drain into that spaceVentriclesLateral ventricles (1 and 2)-center of cerebrum3rd ventricle-thalamus4th ventricle-cerebellumDiencephalonThalamus-relay center for afferent and efferent informationHypothalamus-promote homeostasis, control pituitary gland
Cranial Nerves (24 in total, 12 pairs)I - Olfactory nerve (Sensory)II - Optic nerve (Sensory)III - Oculomotor nerve (Motor)IV - Trochlear nerve (Motor)V - Trigeminal nerve/dentist nerve (Sensory and Motor)VI - Abducens nerve (Motor)VII - Facial nerve (Sensory and Motor)VIII - Vestibulocochlear nerve/Auditory nerve (Sensory)IX - Glossopharyngeal nerve (Sensory and Motor)X - Vagus nerve (Sensory and Motor)XI - Accessory nerve/Spinal accessory nerve (Motor)XII - Hypoglossal nerve (Motor)Module 2Stages of the action potentialBe able to relate parts of an action potential in an image to the ion flowBe able to relate descriptions of the stage of an action potential with the ion flow.IE: "The rising phase of the AP is due to the influx of Na+"
Changes in permeability/conductance at different phases

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Term
Fall
Professor
FERNANDEZ-VALLE
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