GEOG 3490 Unit 5.docx

Influence is enhanced by donor insistence upon an imf

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influence is enhanced by donor insistence upon an IMF and WB seal of ap- proval as a condition for aid and debt relief - the two organizations are not democratically run Policies and Conditions with SAPs/PRSPs - increase earnings of foreign capital - boost export production: production of goods for local and national needs is relegated in importance as a result of the drive for export production - many countries which used to be self-sufficient in foodstuffs now have to import basic grains - devalue national currency: makes country more attractive to foreign in- vestors seeking a cheap place to produce their goods - reduce and/or abolish import tariffs: designed to protect the price of the production of goods for home consumption against the entry of cheaper imported goods. Removing them can have the effect of flooding the country with expensive luxury goods and durables with high value added in production from the First World - reduce state involvement in the economy - privatise state-run enterprises - cut public spending on activities which cannot be privatized: ex. social services, health provision, education
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- deregulation: reduction of all forms of control, especially economic regu- lations, which inhibit industry’s ability to maximize profits - fiscal measures - reduce inflation: this increases security of investment, including invest- ments in tourist developments - cut interest rates: this increases investment, including investment in the tourism industry - encourage investment rather than saving Costa Rica: Environmental Leader? - system of national parks and protected areas has formed the base re- source of a tourism industry that has relied heavily on the attraction of the country natural diversity of flora, fauna, and landscape - tourism industry is largely based on small-scale, locally owned lodges and heels which form an integral part of the both the communities and natural environmental in which they are located - gained international reputation as a leader in environmental conservation - 1990s: mass tourism developments began as numerous contracts were signed with international consortia to build tourist condominial offering the 4 S’s but also claiming to be environmentally sensitive - In Tambor, a Spanish holiday firm built a 400 room hotel complex within 50m of the high water mark - they stripped a hillside, filled in a swamp, extracted sand from a nearby river, destroyed a hillside to quarry its stone and threatened local species, all without the necessary building permits from the ministries of Housing, Health, Public Works and Transport and Natural Resources - reported that white sand was removed from a nearby beach and used to cover the original black sand beach - opened in 1992 and accused of depositing its sewage into the Rio Panica - 1996: north of Jaco, construction began on the Los Suenos resort hotel, condominiums and marina at the village of Playa Herradura - project altered the extent and ecosystem of a tidal estuary and a marsh that used to stretch along the entire beach -
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