Reardon_et_al_Supermarkets_august_2005.doc

Region to prefer sourcing where possible from more

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region), to prefer sourcing (where possible…) from more capitalized farmers that can meet the requirements of the chain; the good news for the future of small farmers is that these are not necessarily large farmers, but can be and often are simply the upper tier of small farmers, the commercialized small farmers with the adequate vector of technological, organizational, and institutional capital. In some cases export firms or large farmers are available to source from, and they are typically preferred due to the low risk and transaction costs they imply. But a rough estimation is that in all regions the large or export farmer is on average not the main provider of fresh products to supermarkets, but rather it is the medium and the small-but-capitalized farmers that are dominant in the sourcing done directly or via preferred suppliers, and that that trend will continue for some time, and grow. That then clearly points to the need for development programs to apply themselves to building the capital needed by small farmers to access these markets where that access is identified as poverty-alleviating and beneficial to the small farmers. References 16
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Balsevich, F. (2005). Essays on Producers’ Participation, Access and Response to the Changing Nature of Dynamic Markets in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing. Bardhan, P.K. (1980). Interlocking Factor Markets and Agrarian Development: A Review of Issues. Oxford Economic Papers 32 (1), 79–98. Berdegué, J.A. (2001). Cooperating to Compete. Peasant Associative Business Firms in Chile . Published doctoral dissertation, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Department of Social Sciences, Communication and Innovation Group. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Berdegué, J.A. (2001). Cooperating to Compete. Peasant Associative Business Firms in Chile . Published doctoral dissertation, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Department of Social Sciences, Communication and Innovation Group. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Berdegué, J.A. 2004. “Foro Global Alimentario 2005” of the Consejo Nacional Agropecuario, 9- 10 June 2005, Mexico City. Berdegué, J.A., F. Balsevich, L. Flores, and T. Reardon. 2005. “Central American Supermarkets’ Private Standards of Quality and Safety in Procurement of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables,” Food Policy , (30) 3. Carlton, D.W. and J.M. Perloff (Eds.) (2000). Modern Industrial Organization. Third Edition, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. De Souza, R.A.M., R.O.P.Silva, C.S. Mandelli, A.M.P. Tasco. 2004. “Comercialização Hortícola Análise De Alguns Setores Do Mercado Varejista De São Paulo” D’Haese, M. and G. Van Huylenbroeck. 2005. “The Rise of Supermarkets and Changing Expenditure Patterns of Poor Rural Households Case Study in the Transkei Area, South Africa,” Food Policy 30 (1): 97-113.
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