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momentum at the state and local level in a few places, mainly mid-western and western states. Their initial political ambitions were expressed in the Omaha Platform. They achieved no great national success. However, many of the issues they supported eventually became constitutional amendments (16,17,18,19).Melting PotPopular metaphor for immigrant assimilation into American society. According to this ideal, all immigrants underwent a process of Americanization that produced homogeneous society. Immigrants during this period never fully lost the social cultural religious and political identities they have brought with them. This is a significance to America because America today is consisted of many different races, cultures, and religions. Tammany Hall (political machines) Urban political organizations that dominated many late 19th-century cities. Missing machines provided needed services to the urban poor, but they also fostered corruption, crime, and inefficiency. Machines uses a party organization that recruits its members by the use of tangible incentives—money, political jobs—and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity. Political campaigning revolved around the men already in power and powerful business owners which was not favored by the population especially in areas of poor living conditions like the city. Provided the platform for someone to rise to great power with support of an unrepresented lower class. The "machine' worked better than planned and allowed
for a glorified gangster to become essentially the "boss" of NYC. Would later serve as the means to "spread the vote".Social DarwinismoNatives were worried about religious and political ideas coming to US through immigration. Herbert Spencer created social Darwinism, which said, the whites were at the top of the evolutionary ladder.oA social hierarchy of ethnicity. Irish were considered black, very low on ladder. Italians were non-white. This began discrimination on skin color.oSocial Darwinism was used during the latter portion of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century as a biological justification to further the aims of laissez-faire capitalism, immigration control, eugenics, colonialism and, in one its most extreme applications, Nazism.oWas the belief that competition was part of human evolution and poverty existed as part of the natural order of things and that the small percentage of the wealthy at the top were themore evolved class of people.oAndrew Carnegie appliedDarwin's survival of the fittestto society by believing that a free-market economy and noninterference of the government allowed thefittestto evolve. These people believed they were rich because they were evolutionally superior human beings.Grandfather ClauseoBackground: After the civil war blacks started to gain more rights such as suffrage and freedom of movement. Traditional southerners were not used to this and as constituents of the Jim Crow laws, supported any cause that opposed the progression of blacks.