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NE101 Lecture Notes

Combined firing of neurons 400 hz is a different

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Combined firing of neurons 400 Hz is a different pattern of firing as compared to 300 Hz Sound Transduction Transduction of hair cells in the inner ear tip of hair cell has receptors greater displacement → tighter the hair cell → more open the channel gets → more potassium flows in Depolarization of Hair Cells As potassium comes in, it opens up calcium channels, which releases neurotransmitters difference: SODIUM depolarizes neurons, POTASSIUM for hair cells Outer hair cells: localized sensitivity adjustments outer hair cells themselves do not allow you to hear auditory information modulate response properties of basilar membrane to localize a certain response to auditory information in hair cells (tighten up frequency response) Inner hair cells convey frequency of auditory information Pathway of the auditory system 1. Auditory nerve incompletely lateralized information travels to both sides of brain contralateral pathway is faster and more complex 2. Brain stem nuclei 3. Midbrain: inferior colliculus orientation to particular sounds 4. Diencephalon: medial geniculate nucleus 5. Auditory cortex split up according to frequency response individual neurons respond selectively to specific tones Analyzing Complex Sounds Fourier Analysis Form a fundamental frequency from waveform of incoming sound Basilar membrane breaks it down into individual overtones One side of brain processes information in low frequency changes (right side), and other side processes information in high frequency changes (left side) music vs. speech left – speech, right – music Visual analog to pure tone is line orientation (the simplest form of information) November 19, 2012: Language Language Comprehension
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Speaking Repeating Reading Phonemes: fundamental units of language makes up more complex pieces of language (words) /f/ /th/ /a/ Morphemes: smallest meaningful units of words made from phonemes ex) “un-” “break” “-able” Syntax: rules – immiscible combination of words/phrases children can learn syntax without training Lexicon: library of words that you know can be word form Semantics: meaning of the individual words Prosody: vocal intonation – emotional content of language Discourse: narrative – use of sentences, grammar Noam Chomsky - “Faculty of Language” ability to categorize allows us to fluidly understand different bits of information label using names distinguish between different things sequence syntax mimic sign that you understand language Wernicke-Geshwind model there is an area in the brain dedicated to production of language Repeating spoken language hear something → decode using Wernicke's area → angular gyrus adds visual info → Broca's area processes info → motor cortex where speech is executed Repeating written language
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