A consequence of selecting subjects whose measurement

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A consequence of selecting subjects whose measurement values differ in some specific way from those of the general population. (Think: A study about attitudes about health behaviors. What if we only ask nurses? They may view this differently than if we just took a sample of adults from the general population.) Because these subjects have something in common, their values tend to be similar to others in the sample, but different from the values that might be achieved in the general population. This can introduce bias into the results. What is a refusal rate? the percentage of subjects who declined to participate in the study. What is an acceptance rate? the percentage of subjects who agreed to participate in the study. What is sample attrition? the withdrawal or loss of subjects from a study that can be expressed as a percentage. What is sampling? Sampling involves selecting a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements with which to conduct a study. What is the definition of a probability sampling method? In a probability sampling method, every person (element) of the population has an opportunity to be selected for the sample. Probability sampling methods increase the sample's representativeness of the target population. What are the four types of probability sampling methods? simple random sampling
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stratified random sampling cluster sampling systematic sampling What is simple random sampling? Simple random sampling is achieved by randomly selecting elements from the sampling frame. Ex. names on a slip of paper and draw from a basket, using a random numbers table, etc. What is stratified random sampling? Stratified random sampling is used in situations in which the researcher knows some of the variables for the population that are critical for achieving representativeness. Typical variables used include: age, gender, ethnicity, diagnosis, etc. Stratification ensures that all levels of the identified variables are adequately represented in the sample. What is cluster sampling? In cluster sampling, a researcher develops a sampling frame that includes a list of all the states, cities, institutions, or organizations in which elements of the identified populations can be linked. A random sample of these can then be used in the study. What is systematic sampling? Systematic sampling is used when an ordered list of all members of the population is available. The process involves selecting every kth individual on the list, using a starting point selected randomly. What is non-probability sampling? Not every element of the population has an opportunity for selection to be used in the sample. This method is more commonly used in nursing studies. What are the five types of nonprobability sampling? convenience sampling quota sampling
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purposeful or purposive sampling network or snowball sampling theoretical sampling What types of non-probability sampling are more commonly used in quantitative research studies?
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  • Spring '16
  • Cauble
  • Qualitative Research, researcher

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